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We developed the VRFSA that measured subjects' performances automatically and used analogue scale rather than Likert scale. Twenty-four female patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 15 healthy females were recruited. This was a 6-week, randomized, open-label, and flexible dose study, and 2 treatments (baseline versus post-treatment) x 2 skills phases (receptive versus expressive) x 2 patient groups (aripiprazole versus risperidone) analysis of variance was used in the final analysis.
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The 4 second-generation neuroleptics included in our meta-analysis show only small differences in overall efficacy, with clozapine being the most effective and aripiprazole the least effective among them. When the risk of adverse effects is analyzed, olanzapine and clozapine are afflicted with the highest risk of inducing weight gain and haloperidol with extrapyramidal symptoms. Even aripiprazole and risperidone, however, induce considerable weight gain compared with placebo but may be acceptable alternatives when tailoring drug treatment to the individual patient.
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clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00892047.
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221 Subjects with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition-diagnosed DSM-IV-TR MDD (mean ± SD age, 45 ± 11 years; 64% women) with inadequate antidepressant response were recruited from September 2008-July 2009 and randomized to 60 days of double-blind augmentation with either aripiprazole or placebo in two 30-day phases. The study was performed across 8 academic hospital sites and 14 nonacademic (private clinic) sites throughout the United States. Randomization in a 2:3:3 ratio per sequential parallel comparison design was drug/drug (aripiprazole 2 mg/d in phase 1 and 5 mg/d in phase 2), placebo/placebo (placebo in both phases), and placebo/drug (placebo in phase 1 and aripiprazole 2 mg/d in phase 2). In phase 2, we examined efficacy of an aripiprazole dose increase to 5 mg/d in nonresponders to 2 mg/d by assessing response rates (≥ 50% reduction in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] score [primary outcome measure]) and score changes in MADRS, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and -Improvement (CGI-I) scales, and patient-rated versions of the CGI-I and CGI-S scales.
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Second-generation antipsychotics demonstrate clinical efficacy with fewer extrapyramidal side effects compared with first-generation antipsychotics. One of the proposed explanations is the hypothesis of preferential extrastriatal dopamine D₂ receptor occupancy (limbic selectivity) by antipsychotics. In the present study, we focused on aripiprazole, which has a unique pharmacological profile with partial agonism at dopamine D₂ receptors and the minimal risk of extrapyramidal side effects. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies using high-affinity radioligands for dopamine D₂ receptors have reported inconsistent results regarding regional differences of dopamine D₂ receptor occupancy by aripiprazole.
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A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53), nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP was also an effective and well-tolerated treatment for Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The findings were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations.
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A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to determine factors predicting remission most strongly at the end point. Remission was defined as a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score of 10 or less at end point.
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We report on two cases in which monotherapy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and sigma-1 receptor agonist fluvoxamine was effective in ameliorating the akathisia of patients with schizophrenia treated with the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole.
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Use of each antipsychotic newly marketed over eight years increased while use of risperidone was unchanged and use of olanzapine and the first-generation antipsychotics declined.
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Adjunctive aripiprazole reduced prolactin levels in those treated with risperidone, with no effect on psychopathology and extrapyramidal symptoms. This is a potential treatment for hyperprolactinaemia observed during treatment with second-generation antipsychotics.
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Stable but symptomatic outpatients with schizophrenia were switched from their current antipsychotic to lurasidone in a six-week, open-label trial. HRQoL was assessed using two validated patient-reported measures, the Personal Evaluation of Transitions in Treatment (PETiT) scale and the Short-Form 12 (SF-12). Total and domain scores (psychosocial function and adherence-related attitude) were assessed using the PETiT scale; patients' mental and physical component summary scores (MCS and PCS) were assessed using the SF-12. Changes in HRQoL from baseline to study endpoint were compared using ANCOVA, with baseline score, treatment, and pooled site as covariates. Changes were assessed among all patients and those switched from specific antipsychotics to lurasidone.
Substantial evidence suggests that both partial dopamine agents and mixed 5-HT1A/2A receptor drugs independently show significant efficacy in reducing alcohol use in both animals and humans. Aripiprazole, which acts as a dopamine/5-HT system stabilizer, approaches the optimal characteristics sought in medication to be considered for testing in the treatment of alcohol dependence. In this randomised, double-blind, confrontation trial with naltrexone, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of aripiprazole on alcohol-drinking indices. Craving and psychiatric symptom improvements were the secondary end points. Seventy-five alcohol dependent subjects were detoxified and were subsequently randomised into two groups, receiving 50 mg of naltrexone and 5-15 mg of aripiprazole, respectively. Craving (Visual Analogue Scale; Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale) and withdrawal (Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment) rating scales were applied; psychiatric symptoms were evaluated through the Symptom Check List 90-Revised. The number of subjects remained alcohol free for the entire study period (16 weeks) and the number of subjects relapsed were not significantly different in the two groups. The survival function showed that patients treated with aripiprazole remained abstinent from any alcohol amount for a longer time with respect to those treated with naltrexone. As for craving scores, patients treated with naltrexone showed a better outcome. Results from this study globally place aripiprazole at the same range of efficacy of naltrexone, one of the approved drugs used in alcohol relapse prevention. If it could be demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials that aripiprazole is efficacious in decreasing alcohol use, lessening craving, and attenuating psychopathological symptom severity, we will have gained a powerful agent for the treatment of alcohol-dependent subjects.