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A total of 172 subjects were randomized to 0.05% I+S and 174 subjects to vehicle. Subjects used the study medication topically, once-daily for 6 months, followed by a 3-month washout period. Profilometry measurements of the distance between the highest peak and lowest valley (Rz) and the distance between all valleys and peaks from mid-line (Ra) showed that subjects using I+S had statistically significant improvement (p<0.05) compared with the vehicle group. Additionally, at all visits, VAS clinical scoring of wrinkles/fine lines showed a statistically significant difference between the groups in favour of I+S. Tolerance assessments showed that more subjects in the I+S group experienced local side effects at the start of the study; however, reports of side effects decreased over time in both groups.
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Effective chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer is urgently needed. The anti-proliferative activity of a new retinoid, mofarotene (RO40-8757), was compared with that of other retinoids, such as all trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid, on 9 pancreatic cancer cell lines in relation to the effects on various cell cycle-regulating factors. After treatment with each retinoid, anti-proliferative effect was determined by the MTT method and expression of cell cycle-regulating factors, such as cyclins (D1, E and A), cyclin-dependent kinases (2 and 4), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21 and p27) and retinoblastoma protein, was analyzed by Western blotting. Mofarotene showed half-maximal inhibition of cell proliferation at concentrations between 0.14 x 10(-6) and 3.8 x 10(-6) mol/l with little cytotoxicity. In contrast, the other retinoids did not inhibit the growth of all cell lines by over 50% compared to controls. A marked increase in the fraction of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle was observed after mofarotene treatment; this was associated with marked up-regulation of p21/p27 and a shift of retinoblastoma protein into the hypophosphorylated form. In conclusion, mofarotene inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells by inducing G1-phase cell cycle-inhibitory factors (p21, p27 and hypophosphorylated form of Rb protein) and is considered to be a useful agent for pancreatic cancer treatment.
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Vemurafenib is an oral BRAF inhibitor recently approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Patients treated with this medication have been reported to have the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and/or actinic keratosis (AK).
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The RXR alpha receptor was expressed in all cell lines. RAR alpha,beta and RXR beta were expressed in most of them. RXR gamma was expressed in about half of the cell lines and RAR gamma in only one. Incubation of the cells with retinoids showed a decreased cell number at concentrations of 10(4) M, except for 9-cis-RA, to which only about half of the cell lines responded.
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The small number of patients with acne treated with 13-cis RA was a major limitation.
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We studied the relationship between isotretinoin and depression using a prospective, controlled, cohort design. The study was conducted in a community dermatology clinic. The exposed cohort consisted of consenting patients who were initiating isotretinoin treatment for acne. Patients were either treated with isotretinoin (Acutaneï) therapy (study group) (N=100) or by oral (N=41) or topical acne therapy (control group) (N=59). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale and the Zung Depression Status Inventory were used to assess depression both at baseline and after 2 months of prescribed use of isotretinoin or a control medication (topical or oral antibiotics).
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Isotretinoin is a retinoic acid derivative mostly used in the treatment of cystic acne vulgaris. The adverse effects of isotretinoin are well defined being the major limitation factor for its usage. The decrement of testosterone during isoretinoin treatment is defined in literature. We present a case with 20 years old man who developed gynecomastia after treatment with isotretinoin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third report of the development of gynecomastia after isotretinoin treatment.
An analysis was performed of data from two US federal surveys of outpatient physician services and prescribing for the years 1980 to 1997 and two commercial sources of drug prescription data for 1996 to 1998. From these data, I estimated visits for acne and drugs prescribed during these visits.
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After studying the information in this article, the reader should be able to: 1. Describe the purpose of the pregnancy prevention program. 2. Discuss the five most common reasons for unintended pregnancy. 3. List the components of the expanded pregnancy prevention program. Preventing unintended pregnancy is currently an unsolved problem in the United States, especially among teens. However, successful programs to minimize unintended pregnancy do exist and can serve as a model for other efforts. One such program is the Pregnancy Prevention Program, for use when prescribing isotretinoin to women with childbearing potential. Isotretinoin is a known teratogen and is prescribed disproportionately to teens, who are at higher risk of unintended pregnancy. The program has shown impressive effectiveness despite these handicaps, but since exposure to isotretinoin is so harmful to the fetus and some women still become pregnant while taking the drug, the program has been revised to reduce the failure rate further.
The Canadian Saskatchewan Health Database and the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database.
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Despite sensitivity to sunlight, the patient had a normal acute response to the x-ray treatment without excessive skin reaction. Serial examinations by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) starting 8 months after x-ray treatment was initiated, showed a marked gadolinium enhancement followed by regression. This clearing was first seen at 2 years after biopsy and persisted to at least 9 years after treatment.