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P/Q- and T-type Cav are present in human internal mammary arteries and in cerebral penetrating arterioles. P/Q- and T-type calcium channels are involved in the contraction of mammary arteries from hypertensive patients but not from normotensive patients. Furthermore, in cerebral arterioles P/Q-type channels importance was restricted to hypertensive patients might lead to that T- and P/Q-type channels could be a new target in hypertensive patients.
These results suggest that the celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin cause relaxation in ciliary muscle precontracted with carbachol. Blockade of calcium channels with nifedipine in ciliary muscle may increase the relaxant effect of celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin. The topical or systemic use of celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin with nifedipine can cause blurred near vision due to ciliary muscle relaxation, and in ocular pain conditions caused by ciliary spasm, the pain can be decreased more easily by combined use of these drugs.
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The main purpose of this study was to compare efficacy, tolerability and influence on quality of life (QOL) of nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (NI) 30-60 mg once a day vs amlodipine (AM) 5-10 mg once a day in elderly patients with mild-moderate hypertension.
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Overall nifedipine GITS was well tolerated by patients with stable symptomatic angina.
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Corpus cavernosum myocytes generate spontaneous tone that contributes to penile detumescence. It is essential to elucidate how tone is generated to fully understand the processes involved in erection. Tissue experiments have shown that blockers of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) reduce tone. However, there is also a widespread belief that these channels are poorly expressed in this tissue. Furthermore, it is unclear how VDCC would interact with recently described intracellular Ca2+ waves, which initiate contractions.
1. Vasoconstrictor effects of melatonin were examined in isolated rat tail arteries mounted either in an isometric myograph or as cannulated pressurized segments. Melatonin failed by itself to mediate observable responses but preactivation of the arteries with vasopressin (AVP) reliably uncovered vasoconstriction responses to melatonin with maxima about 50% of maximum contraction. Further experiments were conducted with AVP preactivation to 5-10% of the maximum contraction. 2. Responses to melatonin consisted of steady contractions with superimposed oscillations which were large and irregular in isometric but small in isobaric preparations. Nifedipine (0.3 microM) reduced the responses and abolished the oscillations. Charybdotoxin (30 nM) increased the magnitude of the oscillations with no change in the maximum response. 3. Forskolin (0.6 microM) pretreatment increased the responses to melatonin compared to control and sodium nitroprusside (1 microM) treated tissues. The AVP concentration required for preactivation was 10 fold higher than control in both the forskolin and nitroprusside treated groups. 4. In isometrically-mounted arteries treated with nifedipine, melatonin receptor agonists had the potency order 2-iodomelatonin > melatonin > S20098 > GR196429, and the MT2-selective antagonist luzindole antagonized the effects of melatonin with a low pK(B) of 6.1+/-0.1. 5. It is concluded that melatonin elicits contraction of the rat tail artery via an mt1 or mt1-like receptor that couples via inhibition of adenylate cyclase and opening of L-type calcium channels. Calcium channels and charybdotoxin-sensitive K channels may be recruited into the responses via myogenic activation rather than being coupled directly to the melatonin receptors. 6. It is proposed that the requirement of preactivation for overt vasoconstrictor responses to melatonin results from the low effector reserve of the melatonin receptors together with the tail artery having threshold inertia. Potentiative interactions between melatonin and other vasoconstrictor stimuli probably also result from the threshold inertia. A simple model is presented and a general framework for consideration of interactions between weak vasoconstrictor agonists and other vasoconstrictor stimuli is discussed.
Experiments were performed on both INS-1 cell line and rat isolated pancreatic islets. Insulin release was quantified by the homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence method. Variations in [Ca(2+)]i were measured using the ratiometric fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator Fura-2. Ca(2+) channel currents were recorded with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.
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Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria.
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The regulation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) gene expression by neuronal activity and by activation of the cyclic AMP signaling pathway in primary neuronal and astroglial cultures is described. Neuronal activity mimicked by veratridine-mediated depolarization profoundly increased N/OFQ gene expression in primary striatal neurons. Calcium entry through L-type, but not N-type, voltage-sensitive calcium channels activated by depolarization appears to be involved, because nitrendipine and nifedipine, but not omega-conotoxin, reduced the induction of N/OFQ expression by veratridine. A selective inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinases (KN-62) also antagonized the depolarization-induced increase in N/OFQ mRNA levels, suggesting a role for these enzymes in the activity-dependent induction of N/OFQ gene expression. Constitutively expressed transcription factors may mediate N/OFQ gene expression levels, because veratridine induction of N/OFQ transcription was insensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Regulation of N/OFQ gene expression by depolarization and cyclic AMP is not restricted to striatal neurons, because similar regulation was also observed in neuronal cultures derived from the cerebral cortex. Veratridine did not increase N/OFQ mRNA levels in primary astrocyte cultures; however, elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels lead to a dramatic, 30-fold induction of N/OFQ mRNA levels in these cells.
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Thirteen psoriatic patients with hypertension during the course of cyclosporin A therapy were treated for 25 months with a calcium channel blocker, sustained-release nifedipine, to study the clinical antihypertensive effects and adverse events during treatment with both drugs. Seven of the 13 patients had exhibited a subclinical hypertensive state before cyclosporin A therapy. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures of these 13 patients were decreased significantly after 4 weeks of nifedipine therapy, and blood pressure was maintained within the normal range thereafter for 25 months. The adverse events during combined therapy with cyclosporin A and nifedipine included an increase in blood urea nitrogen levels in 9 of the 13 patients and development of gingival hyperplasia in 2 of the 13 patients. Our findings indicate that sustained-release nifedipine is useful for hypertensive psoriatic patients under long-term treatment with cyclosporin A, but that these patients should be monitored for gingival hyperplasia.
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Increased resistance of airways or blood vessels within the lung is associated with asthma or pulmonary hypertension and results from contraction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To study the mechanisms regulating these contractions, we developed a mouse lung slice preparation containing bronchioles and arterioles and used phase-contrast and confocal microscopy to correlate the contractile responses with changes in [Ca(2+)](i) of the SMCs. The airways are the focus of this study. The agonists, 5-hydroxytrypamine (5-HT) and acetylcholine (ACH) induced a concentration-dependent contraction of the airways. High concentrations of KCl induced twitching of the airway SMCs but had little effect on airway size. 5-HT and ACH induced asynchronous oscillations in [Ca(2+)](i) that propagated as Ca(2+) waves within the airway SMCs. The frequency of the Ca(2+) oscillations was dependent on the agonist concentration and correlated with the extent of sustained airway contraction. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or in the presence of Ni(2+), the frequency of the Ca(2+) oscillations declined and the airway relaxed. By contrast, KCl induced low frequency Ca(2+) oscillations that were associated with SMC twitching. Each KCl-induced Ca(2+) oscillation consisted of a large Ca(2+) wave that was preceded by multiple localized Ca(2+) transients. KCl-induced responses were resistant to neurotransmitter blockers but were abolished by Ni(2+) or nifedipine and the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Caffeine abolished the contractile effects of 5-HT, ACH, and KCl. These results indicate that (a) 5-HT and ACH induce airway SMC contraction by initiating Ca(2+) oscillations, (b) KCl induces Ca(2+) transients and twitching by overloading and releasing Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, (c) a sustained, Ni(2+)-sensitive, influx of Ca(2+) mediates the refilling of stores to maintain Ca(2+) oscillations and, in turn, SMC contraction, and (d) the magnitude of sustained airway SMC contraction is regulated by the frequency of Ca(2+) oscillations.
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Experimental subjects underwent caudally based RPSFs using the modified McFarlane technique. Subjects received either topical anti-ischemic drug therapy (nifedipine; n = 6) or inert carrier ointment (placebo; n = 6). Treatment was initiated immediately following flap closure and continued every 6 hours for 5 days. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were killed and the concentration of ET-1 was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Representative tissues from nifedipine- and placebo-treated skin flaps were also analyzed for ET-1 using immunohistochemical stains.