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The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the enthalpy relaxation behavior of valdecoxib (VLB) and etoricoxib (ETB) and their binary dispersions to derive relaxation constants and to understand their molecular mobilities.
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Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in older people is a risk factor for adverse drug effects. This risk is even higher in older people with dementia (PWD).
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We investigated the ability of the sPLA(2), known as MT-III, isolated from the viperid snake Bothrops asper, to induce LB formation in macrophages and the major cellular signaling pathways involved in this process. The effects of MT-III on ADRP localization and expression and macrophage ultrastructure were assessed. Our results showed that this sPLA(2) induced a marked increase in LB numbers in macrophages, induced the recruitment of ADRP in macrophages, and up-regulated ADRP expression. Ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of weakly and strongly osmiophilic LBs in sPLA(2)-stimulated cells. Enlargement of the ER and Golgi cisterns was also observed. Pretreatment of cells with H7 or staurosporine (PKC inhibitors), LY294002 or wortmannin (PI3K inhibitors), SB202190 or PD98059 (p38(MAPK) and ERK1/2 inhibitors, respectively), or Pyr-2 or Bel (cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) inhibitors, respectively) significantly reduced sPLA(2)-induced LB formation. Herbimycin (a PTK inhibitor) and indomethacin or etoricoxib (COX inhibitors) failed to alter sPLA(2)-induced effects. In conclusion, our results show for the first time the ability of a venom sPLA(2) to induce the formation of LBs and the expression of ADRP in macrophages. Venom PLA(2)-induced LB formation is dependent on PKC, PI3K, p38(MAPK), ERK1/2, cPLA(2), and iPLA(2) signaling pathways but not on PTK, COX-1, or COX-2 pathways. Activation of the ER and Golgi complex may play an important role in the formation of LBs induced by this sPLA(2) in macrophages.
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Oral challenge with etoricoxib was well tolerated in 97% of the patients. Only 2 systemic reactions were reported during the challenge test.
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Several randomized trials and a large number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction associated with the use of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Few data are available concerning the risk of ischemic stroke associated with COX-2 inhibitors.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is overexpressed in cancer. The role of COX-2 and apoptosis were evaluated in 9,10-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced lung cancer in rat and chemoprevention with indomethacin, a traditional NSAID and etoricoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor.
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The discovery of at least two cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes had two major consequences: i) to give a new impetus to the research on lipid metabolism, giving rise to the crystallization of these peculiar membrane enzymes, the characterization of their active sites and their gene regulation, and the identification of new metabolic pathways; ii) the development of new NSAIDs aimed to have an improved safety profile, the coxibs. These drugs are defined by their COX-2 selectivity which is supported by a negligible inhibitory potency on platelet COX-1 in vitro and ex vivo after oral intake of maximal therapeutic doses. However, the coxibs marketed in France (celecoxib, rofecoxib, parecoxib) are not equivalent in terms of selectivity and some drugs developed by pharmaceutical companies (etoricoxib, lumiracoxib) will be even more selective for COX-2. These "new" coxibs are the final step in the theory of COX-2 selectivity and they will probably be helpful to better define the limitations of the therapeutic concept based on a selective inhibition of this iso-enzyme.
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Etoricoxib tolerance was assessed by single-blind-placebo-controlled oral challenges and its subsequent use was checked by a standardized telephone call. The test was performed in 139 subjects (83 single NSAID reactors and 56 multiple NSAID reactors).
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NSAIDs increased the risk of the LUF syndrome, particularly in patients with inactive disease. The selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor etoricoxib was a more potent inductor of LUF syndrome than nonselective COX inhibitors. Continuous periovulatory exposure to NSAIDs should be avoided when planning a pregnancy in patients with rheumatic diseases.
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We performed a systematic review of the various modalities reported in the literature for postoperative pain control after outpatient shoulder arthroscopy and analyzed their outcomes. Analgesic regimens reviewed include regional nerve blocks/infusions, subacromial/intra-articular injections or infusions, cryotherapy, and oral medications. Only randomized control trials with level 1 or level 2 evidence that compared 2 or more pain management modalities or placebo were included. We excluded studies without objective measures to quantify postoperative pain within the first postoperative month, subjective pain scale measurements, or narcotic consumption as outcome measures.
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We performed a double-blind randomized prospective trial of etoricoxib 120 mg vs placebo, taken just prior to the onset of fasting, Yom Kippur 2008. Healthy adults aged 18-65 years were enrolled from the community. Subjects completed a demographic data form and questions regarding headache history and a post-fast survey on headache during the fast. We compared incidence, time of onset and intensity of headache, general ease of fasting, and side effects in control and treatment groups.