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Also known as:  Trihexyphenidyl.

Description

Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.

name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.

Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.

Brand name of Artane is Artane.

Dosage

Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.

If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Artane are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.

Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.

Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.

artane windows reviews

1 The effect of pharmacological pretreatment (pyridostigmine, benactyzine and trihexyphenidyle), designated Panpal, and antidotal treatment (the oxime HI-6 plus benactyzine) in soman poisoning was investigated in a rat model with on-line monitoring of respiratory and circulatory parameters. 2 Soman poisoning caused a high decrease in respiratory rate as well as minute respiratory volume and an increase in mean arterial pressure from 30-120 min following soman challenge. Soman at sublethal dose also significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in diaphragm and various brain parts. 3 Panpal pretreatment as well as antidotal treatment were effective in improving the respiratory and circulatory function disturbed by soman without the ability to increase significantly soman-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in all brain parts studied. 4 The efficacy of combined Panpal pretreatment and antidotal treatment against sublethal soman poisoning was not different from the efficacy of Panpal pretreatment or antidotal treatment alone. 5 The results of this investigation suggest that Panpal pretreatment as well as antidotal treatment are able to restore respiratory and circulatory function in soman-poisoned rats without significant reactivation of brain acetylcholinesterase.

artane medication class

(2-Hydroxyethyl) methyldiethylammonium iodide (diethylcholine; DEC) was tested against trihexyphenidyl for its ability to block tremors in two animal models of Parkinsonism tremors. Both DEC (75 mg/kg) and trihexyphenidyl (10 mg/kg) antagonized physostigmine tremors in mice. Both drugs also blocked tremors in rats which received intracaudate injections of carbachol. DEC was more efficacious than trihexyphenidyl in the rat model. No dose-related inhibition of tremors was seen for trihexyphenidyl (5--20 mg/kg) but inhibition by DEC was dose-related (25--50 mg/kg). The ED50 for tremor inhibition in the rat model by DEC was 33 mg/kg. DEC was also shown to cross the blood-brain barrier in mice. The probable mechanism of action of DEC is discussed.

artane drug interactions

The effect of a single dose (10 mg P.O.) of trihexyphenidyl (THP) on plasma cortisol, growth hormone (GH), and immunoreactive beta-endorphin (ir-beta-EP) was studied in seven major depressed patients and seven controls. GH secretion was suppressed (34-41%) by THP in both groups. THP did not affect cortisol secretion in depressed patients and controls. An increase (18%; p less than 0.05) in plasma ir-beta-EP levels was detected in the healthy subjects only. The results of this study do not support the hypothesized altered responsiveness to anticholinergic provocation in major depression. The inhibitory activity of THP on GH secretion indicates the involvement of the cholinergic system in the regulation of GH release in humans.

artane pediatric dosing

A 62-year-old woman with Meige's syndrome failed to respond to several pharmacologic interventions. Her dystonias improved significantly after treatment with bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the effect was not durable, lasting < or = 72 h. ECT is an effective treatment for many movement disorders including dystonias of differing etiologies. Its efficacy for Meige's syndrome is questionable.

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To better evaluate the non-medical use of anticholinergic substances in Brazil, a review of the local literature was performed. Synthetic compounds such as triexyphenidyl (Artane), benactizine (Asmosterona), dicyclomine (Bentyl) as well as Datura sp. tea were reported as being used by first and second grade students and by street children of several Brazilian cities. In several cases the percentage of youngsters indulging in such use was higher than the percentage found for cocaine, barbiturates, cough syrups and amphetamine-related drugs. Several cases of patients seeking treatment for dependence or for acute psychotic symptoms were also described.

trihexyphenidyl artane drug interactions

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces a parkinsonian state in monkeys and humans and a marked 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) depletion in mouse striatum. In this study, we found that pretreatment with 3-(10,11,-dihydro-5H-dibenzo-[a,d]-cycloheptan-5-ylidene)-1-ethyl- 2- methylpyrrolidine (piroheptine), an anticholinergic drug which also inhibits dopamine uptake completely prevented loss of striatal dopamine in MPTP-treated mice. Trihexyphenidyl partially protected against the neurotoxicity of MPTP. However, clomipramine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor, did not prevent the loss of striatal dopamine. Piroheptine is another agent which was found to prevent MPTP neurotoxicity.

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Musicians' dystonia is a task-specific and painless loss of motor control in a previously well-executed task. It is increasingly recognized in the medical and musical community. Recent advances in neuroimaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation and novel techniques in electroencephalography have shed light on its underlying pathophysiology. To date, a deranged cortical plasticity leading to abnormal sensorimotor integration, combined with reduced inhibition across several levels of the motor pathway are likely mechanisms.This paper reviews the various phenomenology of musician's dystonia across keyboard, string, brass, flute and drum players. Treatment is often challenging. Medical therapies like botulinum toxin injection and rehabilitation method with sensorimotor training offer symptomatic relief and return to baseline performance to some musicians.

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We report a 56-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance. Her mother had Parkinson's disease with onset at age 70. She died at age 74 and the post-mortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of Lewy body positive Parkinson's disease. The patient was well until the age of 50(1995) when she noted an onset of resting tremor and difficulty of gait. She also developed delusional ideation and was admitted to a psychiatric service of another hospital, where a major tranquilizer was given. The delusion disappeared but she developed marked rigidity. The major tranquilizer was discontinued and an anticholinergic and amantadine HCl were given. She showed marked improvement to Hoehn and Yahr stage II and was discharged. In 1995, when she was 52 years of the age, she developed delusion again and a major tranquilizer was given. She developed marked parkinsonism again and became Hoehn and Yahr stage V. The major tranquilizer was discontinued and she was treated with levodopa/carbidopa, trihexyphenidyl, bromocriptine, and dops. She improved remarkably to stage II. She was admitted to our service on October 8, 1996 for drug adjustment. She was alert and not demented. She was anxious but delusion or hallucination was noted. Higher cerebral functions were intact. Cranial nerve functions were also intact except for masked face and small voice. Her posture was stooped and steps were small. She showed retropulsion and moderate bradykinesia. Resting tremor was noted in her left hand. Rigidity was noted in both legs. No cerebellar ataxia or weakness was noted. Deep tendon reflexes were within normal range and sensation was intact. Her cranial MRI revealed some atrophic changes in the putamen, in which a T 2-high signal linear lesion was seen along the lateral border of the putamen bilaterally. In addition, posterior part of the putamen showed T 2-low signal intensity change. She was treated with 1.6 mg of talipexole, 6 mg of trihexyphenidyl, and 100 mg of L-dops. She was in stage III of Hoehn and Yahr. She developed neurogenic bladder with a large amount of residual urine for which she required catheterization. She was transferred to another hospital. Despite drug adjustment, she lost response to levodopa and her parkinsonism deteriorated gradually. She also developed syncope orthostatic hypotension. In April of 1998, she developed intracerebral hemorrhage and was admitted again on April 19, 1998. She was unable to stand and showed marked akinesia and rigidity. She was in stage V of Hoehn and Yahr. Her cranial CT scan revealed bilateral high-density lesions in the posterior parietal lobes. She developed dysphagia for which she required gastrostomy. She was transferred to another hospital but her clinical condition deteriorated further. On December 22, 1999, she developed fever and dyspnea and was admitted to our service again. She developed cardial arrest at the emergency room from hypoxia. She was resuscitated; however, she was comatose with loss of brain stem reflexes. Later on she developed generalized myoclonus. She developed cardiac arrest and pronounced dead on December 28, 1999. The patient was discussed in a neurological CPC. The chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had striatonigral degeneration because of poor response to levodopa in the later course, autonomic failures, and MRI changes. Some other participants thought that the patient had a form of familial Parkinson's disease. Opinions were divided into these two possibilities. Post-mortem examination revealed that the substantia nigra showed intense neuronal loss and gliosis, however, no Lewy bodies were seen. In addition, intracytoplasmic inclusions were seen in oligodendrocytes. The putamen was markedly atrophic in its posterior part with marked gliosis and neuronal loss. The ventromedial part of the pontine nucleus also showed neuronal loss and intracytoplasmic glial inclusions. Pathologic diagnosis was multiple system atrophy. In the parietal lobe, an arteriovenous malformation with bleeding was noted. This is very unique case. Although her mother had Lewy body-positive Parkinson's disease, the patient had Lewy body-negative multiple system atrophy with a-synuclein-positive glial inclusions. Whether this is just a coincidental occurrence or the presence of a genetic load for Parkinson's disease might triggered her multiple system atrophy is an interesting question to be answered in future.

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Working and reference memory processes were simultaneously evaluated during the performance of a paired discrimination (PD) task in which visual and spatial discrimination trials were combined within the same session. Atropine (1 and 5 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.02-0.20 mg/kg), benactyzine (1-4 mg/kg), trihexyphenidyl (1-10 mg/kg), and aprophen (5-20 mg/kg) were all found to increase the number of errors performed by overtrained rats during the spatial but not during the visual trials. Although all the anticholinergic drugs tested induced specific working memory impairment at low doses, they differentially affected other, simultaneously recorded, behavioral parameters. Thus, while atropine affected most of the recorded parameters, aprophen induced only a mild effect. Benactyzine was found to have the most specific effect on working memory, with only minimal side effects, a combination that supports its use as the preferred psychopharmacological model of working memory impairment.

artane 2 mg indication

The extent of the binding of [3H]propylbenzilylcholine mustard (3H-PrBCM) to muscarinic receptors in longitudinal muscle strips from guinea-pig small intestine is increased by nearly 50% when the strips are preexposed to distilled water before measurement of 3H-PrBCM binding in Krebs-Henseleit solution. The apparent rate constant for 3H-PrBCM-receptor complex formation is more than double that of intact strips. The curves for the inhibition of 3H-PrBCM binding by methylatropinium bromide in normal and treated strips are superimposable, but, in contrast, distilled water pretreatment shifts the inhibition curve for carbachol to lower concentrations by a factor of 5-6. The inhibition curve for methylfurmethide is also shifted, by a factor of approximately 4, but the effect on the curve for hexyltrimethylammonium (C6TMA) is slight. The relative inhibition produced by benzhexol in the two preparations was variable. Comparison of the rate of equilibration of benzhexol with muscarinic receptors in intact and in distilled water pretreated muscle indicates that this inconsistency is unlikely to be due to incomplete equilibration.

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Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), ceruletide (caerulein, CER) and 10 analogues of ceruletide, were studied in mice for antagonism of the tremors induced by harmine (5 mg/kg, s.c.), ibogaine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) and oxotremorine (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.). The following reference drugs were tested for comparison: prolyl-leucylglycine amide (MIF), atropine, haloperidol, biperiden, ethopropazine, trihexyphenidyl, methixene and clonazepam. All treatments were subcutaneous, the antagonists being given 10 min (in some trials 30 min) before the tremorogen. Tremorolytic potency (ED50) was calculated from dose-response curves. Against the tremors induced by either harmine or ibogaine, CCK-8 and ceruletide, as well as many of the analogues of ceruletide had greater tremorolytic potency than the reference drugs. Against oxotremorine, however, ceruletide and its most potent analogue, Nle8-CER (other analogues were not tested) were inactive and MIF showed very little effectiveness. Additional experiments on hypothermia and sedation as well as evaluation of previous studies on other central actions suggested that the tremorolytic effect of CCK-like peptides is independent of other central effects. The CCK-like peptides may play a physiological role in the regulation of extrapyramidal motor activity.

artane 2 mg tablets

KW-5338 (domperidone), a new dopamine antagonist, is considered to be an agent to cross the blood-brain barrier with difficulty. The antagonistic activities of KW-5338 against L-DOPA were investigated, KW-5338 showed a strong anti-emetic action against L-DOPA induced emesis in beagle dogs (ED50=0.056 mg/kg (p.o.)) and restored the L-DOPA induced depression of intestinal motility to some extent, while it did not antagonize anti-tremorine activities of L-DOPA and trihexyphenidyl in mice. These results suggest that KW-5338 prevents side effects of L-DOPA such as nausea, vomiting and constipation, without reduction in therapeutic effects of L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease.

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The parenteral long-acting phenothiazines are drugs frequently used in the treatment of hospitalized and ambulatory psychiatric patients. The usual side effects of these drugs are familiar to psychiatrists. However, the "Neuroleptic malignant syndrome" reported in this paper can give rise to considerable diagnostic difficulty. The clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of this syndrome are described with a care report. The need for prompt initiation of adequate therapy is stressed.

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Memantine increased the threshold for electroconvulsions, when administered at 1.0-6.0 mg/kg (i.p.) and given in subthreshold doses of 0.0156, 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) potentiated the protective efficacy of valproate, against maximal electroshock (50 mA)-induced seizures in mice, lowering the ED50 from 235 to 197, 172, 164 and 130 mg/kg, respectively. Trihexyphenidyl, applied in doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg (i.p.), did not influence the electroconvulsive threshold per se but when combined with valproate, strongly enhanced its anticonvulsant activity against maximal electroshock-induced seizures lowering the ED50 from 206 to 103 and 46 mg/kg, respectively. The chimney test and retention testing in mice revealed that administration of memantine at 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) or trihexyphenidyl at 30 mg/kg (i.p.) together with valproate in doses of 130 or 103 mg/kg (i.p.), respectively, resulted in motor impairment and caused impairment of long-term memory, similar to the effects of valproate alone, when applied at its ED50 against maximal electroshock. Neither memantine nor trihexyphenidyl altered the total level of valproate in plasma. It may be concluded that the potentiation of the anticonvulsant activity of valproate, by memantine and trihexyphenidyl, is not associated with a pharmacokinetic interaction.

artane 5 mg effets secondaires

The influence of antidepressants: nomifensine, imipramine, amitriptyline and trazodone on the effect of antiparkinsonian agents: trihexyphenidil and L-DOPA + carbidopa mixture (sinemet) in the model of haloperidol catalepsy was investigated in rats. In some experiments deprenyl, a selective MAO-B inhibitor, was used. It was found that antidepressant drugs in doses not influencing haloperidol catalepsy enhanced significantly the anticataleptic effect of trihexyphenidil and L-DOPA + carbidopa. The most effective in the interaction with both antiparkinsonian agents was nomifensine. Imipramine and trazodone potentiated anticataleptic effect of L-DOPA + carbidopa more strongly than those of trihexyphenidil. The most potent anticataleptic effect was observed after combined treatment of rats with deprenyl and L-DOPA + carbidopa.

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artane generic name 2017-05-02

2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.178) deficiency is a recently described defect of isoleucine catabolism. The disorder is characterized by normal early development followed by a progressive loss of mental and motor skills. Deterioration may be rapid or may follow a slower decline with a possible stabilization of the disorder on a low-protein diet and appropriate medication. We report a 23-year-old man with 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency with a very mild clinical course. He had apparently normal early development and remained relatively well until the age of 6 years, when he contracted measles. Following this illness, his motor skills and school progress deteriorated. At 15 years he Depression Drug Cymbalta had significant dysarthria, and generalized rigidity with some dystonic and unusual posturing. He was then treated with a low-protein high-carbohydrate diet with a good response in terms of balance and gait. At 18 years he was given benzhexol (Artane), increased slowly from 2 mg to 6 mg daily, resulting in improvement in tremor and dystonia. At 23 years he can dress himself and works in sheltered employment but remains severely dysarthric.

artane drugs 2015-08-30

Rabbit syndrome (RS) is a rare extrapyramidal side effect caused by prolonged neuroleptic medication. Here we present a case of withdrawal-emergent RS, which is the first of its kind to be reported. The patient developed RS during dose reduction of risperidone. The symptom was treated successfully with trihexyphenidyl anticholinergic therapy. The underlying mechanism of withdrawal-emergent RS in the present case may have been related Cozaar Pill to the pharmacological profile of risperidone, a serotonin-dopamine antagonist, suggesting the pathophysiologic influence of the serotonin system in the development of RS.

artane reviews 2017-01-13

Memantine increased the threshold for electroconvulsions, when administered at 1.0-6.0 mg/kg (i.p.) and given in subthreshold doses of 0.0156, 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) potentiated the protective efficacy of valproate, against maximal electroshock (50 mA)-induced seizures in mice, lowering the ED50 from 235 to 197, 172, 164 and 130 mg/kg, respectively. Trihexyphenidyl, applied in doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg (i.p.), did not influence the electroconvulsive threshold per se but when combined with valproate, strongly enhanced its anticonvulsant activity against maximal electroshock-induced seizures lowering the ED50 from 206 to 103 and 46 mg/kg, respectively. The chimney test and retention testing in mice revealed that administration of memantine at 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) or trihexyphenidyl at 30 mg/kg (i.p.) together with valproate in doses of 130 or 103 mg/kg (i.p.), respectively, resulted in motor impairment Indocin Sr Medication and caused impairment of long-term memory, similar to the effects of valproate alone, when applied at its ED50 against maximal electroshock. Neither memantine nor trihexyphenidyl altered the total level of valproate in plasma. It may be concluded that the potentiation of the anticonvulsant activity of valproate, by memantine and trihexyphenidyl, is not associated with a pharmacokinetic interaction.

artane 5 mg price 2016-11-08

A case of a mentally retarded patient with sporadic paroxysmal dystonia, unresponsive to anticonvulsant Lexapro 50 Mg therapy, is described. He had a long-standing history of neuroleptic drug intake. Trihexyphenidyl in a total daily dosage of 20 mg totally suppressed the crises.

artane tab 2016-10-12

The influence of taurine on cataleptogenic effect of neuroleptics was investigated in male Wistar rats. It was found that taurine 900 micrograms/rat icv reduced significantly haloperidol or Arcoxia 120 Y Alcohol fluphenazine-induced catalepsy. In rats receiving taurine in a dose of 450 micrograms, not influencing catalepsy, with low doses of anticholinergic antiparkinsonian agents (trihexyphenidyl and pridinol) strong anticataleptic effect was observed. The results suggest that taurine facilitates neurotransmission in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

artane pill sizes 2017-09-06

To assess the therapeutic effect and adverse reaction of Qufeng Zhidong Recipe (a recipe for Benicar Generic dispelling wind to stop abnormal movement) used to treat children with tic disorder (TD).

artane drug 2015-04-15

We present a case of symptomatic hemidystonia of delayed onset. The primary disease was a perinatal, presumed cerebrovascular infarction brought about by febrile illness with convulsions 12 weeks after partus. Medicine Zovirax After many years without neurological symptoms, the hemidystonia started in adolescence, and became stationary after 4 years of mild progression. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed atrophy of the right striatum including the caudate nucleus and putamen. The symptoms responded moderately to treatment with benzhexol.

artane drug interactions 2016-07-09

We examined and videotaped Buspar Reviews Weight Loss all homozygous carriers of the DYT16 gene.

artane 5 mg drogue 2015-02-21

A one-year old boy was admitted to hospital for lethargy and vomiting over three days. Neurological examination revealed abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed evidence of meningitis. A purified protein Requip Xl 4mg Tablet derivative (PPD) test, T-SPOT.TB and radiological examination indicated tuberculous meningitis. During treatment, the child developed hypertension, sinus tachycardia, tachypnoea, dystonia and high fever. These episodes improved after administration of propranolol, artane and clonazepam. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity is a rare manifestation of tuberculous meningitis. Early detection is very important as it can avoid diagnostic errors and overtreatment.

artane 1 mg 2017-01-17

Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) increases lysosomal pH and thereby abolishes intralysosomal accumulation of drugs. Its effect on the tissue distribution of biperiden and Lipitor 40 Mg Tablet Price trihexyphenidyl in rats has been investigated. The tissue-plasma concentration ratios (Kp) of these drugs in various tissues were determined by infusion studies at steady-state in the presence or absence of NH4Cl. Treatment with NH4Cl reduced the Kp values for both drugs, causing the largest reduction in Kp in the lung (52.1 to 11.8 for biperiden and 59.5 to 18.9 for trihexyphenidyl; ratios of decrease 0.77 and 0.68, respectively), followed by the heart and kidneys, with relatively small reductions in the brain, gut, muscle and fat. Subcellular fractionation studies in the lung indicated that the subcellular fraction-plasma concentration ratio of each drug at the steady state (K(p,sf)) was reduced by treatment with NH4Cl, with the largest decrease in the post-nuclear fraction (ratio of decrease 0.82 for biperiden and 0.74 for trihexyphenidyl), followed by the nucleus, microsomes and supernatant, in that order. A strong correlation was found between the ratio of decrease in K(p,sf) after NH4Cl treatment and the specific activity of acid phosphatases, a marker of lysosomes, in each fraction (biperiden, r = 0.948; trihexyphenidyl, r = 0.945). These results suggest that acidic organelles contribute significantly to the distribution kinetics of anticholinergic drugs.

artane 5 mg yan etkileri 2016-06-24

The effect of long-acting propranolol hydrochloride (160 mg/d), primidone (250 mg at night), and clonazepam (4 mg/d) on the resting, postural, and kinetic component of tremor was investigated in ten parkinsonian patients in a double-blind crossover design. Tremor was assessed by patient opinion, clinical scoring, and accelerometer recordings. The amplitude and frequency of tremorgrams were determined by spectral analysis. Most patients preferred long-acting propranolol and chose to continue taking the drug. The mean clinical score for resting and postural tremor was significantly decreased by long-acting propranolol but not by primidone or clonazepam. Long-acting propranolol reduced the mean amplitude of resting tremor by 70% and the mean amplitude of postural tremor by 50%. Mean tremor amplitudes were not changed by primidone or clonazepam. Tremor frequency was unaltered by the drugs. No side effects occurred with long-acting propranolol but adverse reactions were common with primidone and clonazepam. Long-acting propranolol is a useful adjuvant therapy for the tremors associated with Parkinson's disease.

artane windows reviews 2016-07-08

The treatment of both generalized and focal dystonia is symptomatic. There is no evidence-based information about the efficacy of the different methods of the pharmacological therapeutic options currently being applied in dystonia. The specific questions addressed by this study were which treatments for dystonia have proven efficacy and which of them have unproven results. Following evidence-based principles, a literature review based on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, augmented by manual search of the most important journals was performed to identify the relevant publications issued between 1973 and 2003. All articles appearing in the professional English literature, including case reports, were considered. In the presence of comparable studies the meta-analysis was performed to obtain pooled information and make a reasonable inference. Based on this review, we conclude: (i) botulinum toxin has obvious benefit (level A, class I-II evidence) for the treatment of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm; (ii) trihexyphenidyl in high dosages is effective for the treatment of segmental and generalized dystonia in young patients (level A, class I-II evidence); (iii) all other methods of pharmacological intervention for generalized or focal dystonia, including botulinum toxin injections, have not been confirmed as being effective according to accepted evidence-based criteria (level U, class IV studies).

artane 2 mg tablets 2016-06-13

We report a case of dystonia with a partial deletion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 18 and androgen insensitivity. Neurologic findings in the 18p syndrome are reported to include mental retardation, seizures, incoordination, tremor, and chorea. A 15-year-old girl with a denovo 18p deletion [karyotype 46, XY, del (18)(p11.1)] developed progressive asymmetric dystonia. She had oromotor apraxia and partial expressive aphasia since childhood, and she was able to partially communicate through elementary sign language. At the age of 15 years, she developed subacute and progressive choreic movements of the right arm, severe dystonic posturing of the left arm, and spastic dystonia in both legs. Her response to parenteral or oral benzodiazepines, oral trihexyphenidyl, benztropine mesylate, baclofen, and L-dopa were brief and inadequate. The response to intrathecal baclofen has been sustained over 18 months. In all likelihood, the 18p deletion syndrome affecting this patient is significant in the pathogenesis of her acquired dystonia. Chronic intrathecal baclofen therapy via pump has been effective in this case and should be considered as a treatment modality in carefully selected patients with dystonia.