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The combination of OM and AML was effective and well tolerated in this adult population with hypertension.
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Olmesartan significantly reduces SBP and PP, and these reductions are more pronounced in patients with a wide baseline PP. In patients with a wide baseline PP and age > or = 65 years, the population at greatest risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, olmesartan reduces PP to an extent similar to that in patients <65 years of age.
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Three trials are available in full publication form with others available only as abstracts. Azilsartan medoxomil 40 mg and 80 mg daily significantly improves both systolic and diastolic BP from baseline compared with placebo, and the 80-mg dose has greater efficacy than other ARBs, including olmesartan 40 mg daily and valsartan 320 mg daily. Improvements in both 24-hour BP using ambulatory monitoring and clinic monitoring have been seen with azilsartan medoxomil as well as a higher proportion of patients reaching the goal level. Additional information shows added BP lowering when azilsartan medoxomil is combined with chlorthalidone. Adverse events are similar with azilsartan medoxomil versus other ARBs and include headache, dizziness, urinary tract infections, and fatigue.
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Following the therapeutic change, daily average systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased by 6.7 +/- 9.3 mmHg and 3.6 +/- 8.3 mmHg, respectively, with olmesartan 20 mg; PWV was also significantly decreased. Holter electrocardiogram heart rate variability spectral analysis demonstrated that none of the very low frequency (VLF), high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF)/HF components were significantly altered. However, a significant correlation was observed between the LF/HF component and blood pressure difference, when blood pressure and heart rate variability components in each individual case were studied.
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Two studies (ROADMAP and ORIENT) evaluating the renoprotective effects of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) in patients with type 2 diabetes suggested OM is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. We conducted a thorough QTc study to evaluate the effects of OM on cardiac repolarization. A randomized, double-blind, phase 1 study was conducted per E14 Guidance to assess the effects of single doses of OM therapeutic dose (40 mg), OM supratherapeutic dose (160 mg), placebo, or moxifloxacin (MOXI; 400 mg) on QTc in 56 healthy subjects. The primary endpoint was the baseline-adjusted, placebo-corrected QTc interval using Fridericia's formula (ΔΔQTcF) for OM and MOXI. Assay sensitivity was concluded if lower limit of 1-sided 95%CI > 5 milliseconds of ΔΔQTcF for MOXI. No threshold pharmacologic effect for OM was concluded if upper limit of 1-sided 95%CI <10 milliseconds for ΔΔQTcF at any timepoint. Pharmacokinetics, ECGs, and safety were assessed. Assay sensitivity was demonstrated. The largest upper limit of the 1-sided 95%CI for ΔΔQTcF was <5 milliseconds for OM. No clinically significant changes were observed in ECGs. Pharmacokinetics and safety profile were consistent with previous data. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic OM doses had no clinically significant effect on cardiac repolarization and were well tolerated.
Blockade of angiotensin (Ang) II is efficient in various renal diseases. Although interest has focused on the hemodynamic changes and reduction of proteinuria, recent studies emphasize the nonhemodynamic effects of Ang II on kidney injury. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms of Ang II on the immune system that alter the balance of helper T-cell (Th) subsets. We used a continuous, Ang II infusion model of rats that develop hypertension, proteinuria, and tubulointerstitial damage, including de novo expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and loss of endothelial cells. We isolated T cells from the spleen and measured cytokine levels by ELISA systems. Ang II-infused rats showed an increase in the Th1 cytokine gamma-interferon and a decrease in the Th2 cytokine interleukin-4. The same change in cytokine mRNA expression in the spleen and kidney was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our ELISPOT assay showed an increase in the number of gamma-interferon-secreting T cells by Ang II. To investigate whether these changes were specific effects of Ang II, we treated the model rats with the Ang II receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan or the nonspecific vessel dilator hydralazine. Administration of the ARB ameliorated disease manifestations and the imbalance in Th subsets, whereas hydralazine did not, despite comparable effects on blood pressure. These results demonstrate a direct role of Ang II in the modification of Th balance. The imbalance of Th subsets was associated with hypertensive kidney injury induced by Ang II. Some of the beneficial effects of ARBs might be explained by their immunomodulatory reactions.
While control of blood pressure remains a critical factor in the prevention of hypertensive nephropathy, Ang (1-7) may play a substantial role in preventing the structural changes in glomerulus through its effect on regulations of blood pressure and renal function.
Elevated systolic BP (SBP) is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. SBP control reduces the occurrence of stroke, heart failure, and cardiovascular and total mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the magnitude of SBP reductions and the achievement of individual SBP targets in the original BENIFORCE study.
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European hypertension guidelines estimate that up to 15-20% of hypertensive patients are not controlled on a dual antihypertensive combination and require three or more different antihypertensive drug classes to achieve blood pressure (BP) control.
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Hypertension is particularly prevalent in patients aged ≥65 years, those with a body mass index ≥30 kg m(-2), Blacks and those with type II diabetes. Here we report a prespecified secondary analysis of the efficacy of amlodipine (10 mg day(-1)), olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg day(-1)), a combination of the two and placebo in these subgroups. Patients were randomized to treatment for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in mean seated diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Secondary efficacy endpoints included the change from baseline in mean seated systolic BP (SBP), proportions of patients achieving BP goal (<140/90 mm Hg or <130/80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes), and the number and percentage of patients achieving a range of BP targets. Safety and tolerability of amlodipine 5 and 10 mg, olmesartan medoxomil 10, 20 and 40 mg, and all possible combinations of the two were also assessed. For each prespecified subgroup, all active treatments resulted in significant BP reductions from baseline (P<0.05). The antihypertensive effect of the combination of amlodipine+olmesartan medoxomil was generally greater than the constituent amlodipine or olmesartan medoxomil monotherapies, regardless of subgroup. In general, more patients receiving combination therapy achieved BP goal than those treated with monotherapies. The safety and tolerability of combinations were similar to monotherapies across the subgroups. These results suggest that the combination of amlodipine+olmesartan medoxomil provides a safe and effective option for the treatment of hypertension in challenging patient populations.
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Following cerebral ischemia, i.v. infusion of angiotensin II increases cerebral edema and mortality. Angiotensin type 1 receptor blockage should therefore improve acute cerebral ischemia. Left middle cerebral artery occlusion (120 min) followed by reperfusion was performed with the thread method under halothane anesthesia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Olmesartan (angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker; 0.01 or 0.1mumol/kg/h) was infused i.p. for 7 days following middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Stroke index score, infarct volume, specific gravity, and brain angiotensin II and matrix metalloproteinases were quantified in the ischemic and non-ischemic hemispheres. Olmesartan treatment improved stroke index score, infarct volume, and cerebral edema in our cerebral ischemia model. In particular, stroke index score, infarct volume, and cerebral edema were reduced even with a low dose of olmesartan that did not decrease blood pressure. Paralleling these effects on cerebral ischemia, olmesartan treatment also reduced the reactive upregulation in brain angiotensin II, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase in the ischemic area. Angiotensin type 1 receptor stimulation may be one of the important factors that cause cerebral edema following cerebral ischemia, and that its inhibition may be of therapeutic advantage in cerebral ischemia.
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This is a prespecified subgroup analysis in Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients of a study that evaluated blood pressure (BP) control with fixed-dose amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil (AML/OM)-based therapy in patients whose condition was uncontrolled on prior monotherapy.
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Brown-Norway rat pups were exposed to hyperoxic conditions from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P12, and to subsequent normal air for 5 days [oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model]. Olmesartan medoxomil (AT1 receptor antagonist; administered orally), PD123319 (AT2 receptor antagonist; administered subcutaneously) or a vehicle was administered once daily during the last 5 days. At P16, the retinal permeability was determined by measuring the leaked fluorescein-conjugated dextran concentration in the retina. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) alpha proteins in the retina were assessed by an ELISA and western blotting, respectively.
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OBJECTIVE To clarify the mechanism of the anti-atherosclerotic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) in primates, we investigated whether an ARB (CS-866) affects the serum markers of inflammation and growth factors, and the endothelial function in monkeys fed a high-cholesterol diet. DESIGN Monkeys fed a high-cholesterol diet for 6 months were divided into two groups: one group was given an ARB, CS-866 (10 mg/kg per day), and the other group was not. The control group was fed a normal diet. RESULTS Blood pressure and the plasma cholesterol level were not affected by CS-866. Plasma levels of angiotensin II, renin, angiotensin converting enzyme and chymase were not changed by the high-cholesterol diet, whereas vascular angiotensin converting enzyme, but not chymase, was significantly increased. Serum levels of macrophage-colony stimulating factor, transforming growth factor-beta1 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 were significantly increased in monkeys fed a high-cholesterol diet but they were suppressed by CS-866. The relaxation response of isolated carotid arteries to acetylcholine was suppressed in the high-cholesterol group, whereas it was improved by CS-866. CONCLUSIONS CS-866 reduced lipid deposition along with the suppression of serum macrophage-colony stimulating factor, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and the improvement of vascular functions, suggesting that ARB has multiple mechanisms for reducing lipid deposition in primates.