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A review of the preclinical pharmacology of non-sedating H1 antihistamines includes comparative data on potency, duration of action, side effect liability, especially CNS depressant and anticholinergic activity and new approaches that may further enhance the efficacy of these newer compounds. Data discussed mainly involve studies in which multiple comparative agents were used and usually include astemizole, cetirizine, loratadine and terfenadine. New research approaches include the combination of PAF inhibition with antihistamine activity and the inhibitory effects these compounds may have on cellular influx in allergic diseases.
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These results indicate that loratadine and its main metabolite have anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the release of preformed and de novo synthesized mediators from human Fc epsilon RI+ cells.
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Persistent allergic rhinitis often impairs quality of life.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ketotifen 0.025% ophthalmic solution instilled in the eye, desloratadine 5-mg tablets taken orally, and their combination for prevention of the signs and symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, as induced by the conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) model.
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To review the evidence in the literature for the use of antihistamines in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
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Rind of Punica granatum was subjected to shade drying. Shade dried materials were pulverized using conventional grinder. Grinded materials were macerated in commercial grade methanol. The extract of rind of P. granatum was concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Rabbits' jejunal preparations were mounted in organ bath containing 10 ml Tyrode's solution, constantly aerated with carbogen gas. Pg. Cr was tested on spontaneous rabbits' jejunal preparations in concentrations 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Pg. Cr was also tested on KCl (80 mM)-induced contractions in rabbits' jejunal preparations. Since we observed spasmogenic activity for the first time, hence we also determined the effects of Pg. Cr in presence of atropine (0.03 μM). Pg. Cr was also tested in presence of 0.03 μM of loratadine HCl. Pg. Cr was also tested on barium chloride induced contractions. Calcium Concentration Response Curves (CCRCs) were constructed in the absence and presence of test samples of Pg. Cr in decalcified tissues to explore its possible mode of action. Acute toxicity screening was also performed to determine its safe dose range.
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SCH 29851 [8-chloro[6,11-dihydro-11-(1-carboethoxy-4-piperidylidene)- 5-H-benzo [5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]-pyridine] was discovered as part of a search for a new antihistamine without effects on the central nervous system (CHS). Antihistaminic potency and duration of action of SCH 29851 and other antihistamines were assessed by inhibition of histamine-induced lethality in guinea pigs and histamine-induced paw edema in mice. Evaluation of possible CNS effects included gross observation of mice, rats, dogs and monkeys, prevention of electroshock-induced convulsions, acetic acid-induced writhing and physostigmine-induced lethality in mice and biochemical measures related to sedative liability such as displacement of in vivo 3H-mepyramine binding in mouse brain and in vitro 3H-WB 4101 binding in guinea pig cortex. Comparisons were made to several antihistamines considered to be sedative to varying degrees, including diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine and azatadine and to the newer antihistamines terfenadine and astemizole which are reported to be non-sedating in man at doses that antagonize the effects of histamine peripherally. SCH 29851 had antihistamine activity in the tests used with a potency at least comparable to most standards and was devoid of activity in all the functional and biochemical models used as indices of CNS activity. It is expected that SCH 29851 should be an effective, long acting, antihistamine in man without sedative effects at therapeutic doses.
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The objective of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 5-way crossover study was to compare the pharmacodynamic effects of the H1 antihistamine ebastine (10 mg once daily, E10) with those of cetirizine (10 mg once daily, C10), loratadine (10 mg once daily, L10), fexofenadine (60 mg, twice daily, F60 x 2) and placebo (P) after 6 days of treatment in healthy volunteers. The pharmacodynamic variable was the mean percent reduction from baseline (pretreatment) of the wheal area induced by intradermal histamine 0.1% on the morning after 6 days' treatment. A secondary variable was the concentration of histamine required to produce a wheal of area 150 mm2. E10 reduced wheal size more than did P (p < 0.001) or F60 x 2 (p < 0.019). No significant differences were found among E10, C10 and L10. After E10, a significantly greater concentration of histamine was needed to induce a wheal of 150 mm2 than after P (p < 0.001), L10 (p < 0.001) or F60 x 2 (p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between E10 and C10. In conclusion, this study shows that, at the end of the conventional dosing interval, ebastine 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg once daily in repeated doses suppressed the histamine wheal more effectively than did loratadine 10 mg once daily or fexofenadine 60 mg twice daily.
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Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. The rats were divided into the 4 following groups: the control group (C group); the AR group; an antihistamine-treated group (AH group); and an AR plus antihistamine-treated group (AR+AH group). The AR and AR+AH groups were sensitized using ovalbumin. The AR+AH and AH groups received desloratadine. The histopathological effects of AR and desloratadine treatment on the submandibular glands (SMGs) and the values of the oxidative and antioxidative serum parameters were evaluated.
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To monitor the safety of desloratadine as prescribed in England, using the observational cohort technique of prescription event monitoring (PEM).