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Cx43 level was upregulated in VSMCs during early atherosclerosis. Losartan and ramipril can inhibit the expression of Cx43.
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Ang II induced migration of SHR-AFs was markedly increased in a dose-dependent manner when compared with WKY-AFs. Addition of the Ang II receptor type-1 (AT1-R) antagonist Losartan and P38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 suppressed Ang II-induced migration of SHR-AFs. Ang II could induce P38 MAPK phosphorylation in SHR-AFs in a time-and dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of P38 MAPK was suppressed by Losartan and SB202190.
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The role of hypothalamic paraventricular adrenoceptors and angiotensin II (ANG II)-AT 1 receptors in mediating the vasopressin (AVP) release into the plasma in response to i.c.v. and local paraventricular ANG II injections was investigated in conscious chronically instrumented rats. Noradrenaline (NA) administered bilaterally into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) dose-dependently stimulated AVP release. Bilateral PVN microinjections of the alpha 1 adrenoceptor agonists methoxamine and phenylephrine, or of the alpha2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine, did not affect plasma AVP when given alone, but increased plasma AVP when methoxamine and clonidine were given in combination. In contrast, PVN microinjections of both the beta 1 adrenoceptor agonist dobutamine and the beta 2 adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol significantly reduced basal plasma AVP. Bilateral PVN pretreatment with the alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic antagonists prazosin, idazoxan and rauwolscine, but not of the beta 1 and beta 2 adrenoceptor antagonists atenolol and ICI 118 551, significantly attenuated the i.c.v. ANG II-induced AVP release. ANG II injected bilaterally into the PVN dose-dependently increased plasma AVP. Bilateral PVN pretreatment with the specific ANG II-AT 1 receptor antagonist losartan partially inhibited the i.c.v. ANG II-induced AVP release. We conclude: 1) Beta 1 and beta 2 adrenoceptors in the PVN exert an inhibitory action on basal AVP secretion. 2) ANG II can release AVP by directly stimulating its ANG II-AT 1 receptors in the PVN. 3) PVN mediated AVP release in response to periventricular ANG II-AT 1 receptor stimulation is at least partially effected through ANG II-AT 1 receptors in the PVN impinging on alpha adrenergic terminals.
In light of our findings, losartan may be a useful option in CED management.
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The AT2 angiotensin II receptor selective ligand CGP42112 was radioiodinated and used to study AT2 receptor binding sites in the rat brain (combined olfactory bulb, septum, thalamus and midbrain) and whole adrenal. The [125I]CGP 42112 binding was of high affinity, saturable and specific in both tissues. Competition studies with nonselective and angiotensin II receptor subtype selective ligands, and evaluation of the effects of the sulfhydryl reducing agent beta-mercaptoethanol, confirmed that [125I]CGP 42112 bound selectively to the AT2 angiotensin II receptor subtype. [125I]CGP 42112 bound with higher affinity in the brain than in the adrenal. beta-Mercaptoethanol enhanced [125I]CGP 42112 binding in the brain, but did not alter its binding in the adrenal. A similar difference in binding affinity for [125I]sarcosine, isoleucine angiotensin II and enhancement of binding affinity by beta-mercaptoethanol was observed in the rat brain and adrenal. These observations suggest that the AT2 angiotensin II receptor subtypes in the brain and adrenal may differ.
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Losartan attenuates scar formation of filtering bleb after trabeculectomy likely via decreasing proliferation, migration, transdifferentiation, and extracellular matrix deposition of Tenon's fibroblasts. These results indicate that losartan may be an effective therapeutic agent in preventing bleb scar formation and in improving surgical outcome after trabeculectomy.
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Impairment of arterial baroreflex sensitivity is associated with mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Elevation of plasma angiotension II (Ang II) contributes to arterial baroreflex dysfunction in CHF. A reduced number of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels in aortic baroreceptor neurons are involved in CHF-blunted arterial baroreflex.
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Previous studies showed that the microinjection of antioxidants or the overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) reduces hypertension and sympathoexcitation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C) model. In this study, we hypothesized that angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is involved in the oxidative stress within the RVLM and contributes to cardiovascular dysfunction in renovascular hypertension.
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Micropuncture measurements were made before and during acute systemic NOS inhibition with N-monomethyl L-arginine (NMA) alone, NMA + the nonpeptide ETA and ETB receptor antagonist, bosentan, NMA + the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, and NMA during combined bosentan and losartan.
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The atenolol group consisted of 9 females (17.6years) and the losartan group 7 males and 1 female (17.0years). Their height, weight, BSA, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were similar. Baseline to 12-month changes for atenolol and losartan were PWV (20% vs -14%), Zi (-2% vs -27%), Zc (-20% vs -27%), Ep (1%, vs -13%), β-index (10% vs 14%), FMD (11% vs 20%), TAC (3% vs 42%), Wm (-24% vs 15%), Wt (-24% vs 17%), and Wt/CI (3% vs 21%). There was a trend for losartan to decrease PWV and stiffness indexes while atenolol decreased power and power/unit flow.