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Depakote (Divalproex Sodium)
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Depakote

Depakote is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of various types of seizure disorders. Depakote is a perfect remedy in struggle against seizure disorders. Depakote acts by increasing the amount of a certain natural substance in the brain. It is anticonvulsant.

Other names for this medication:
Depakote ER, Depakote Sprinkles, Dicorate, Divaa, Valance, Desval, Tikoprex, Diproex, Trend, Valkem OD

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Depakene, Stavzor, Depacon, Abaglin, Absenor, Aclonium, Actinerval, Actinium, Adepri, Alox, Alti-Valproic, Amizepin

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Also known as:  Divalproex Sodium.

Description

Depakote is a perfect remedy in struggle against seizure disorders.

Depakote acts by increasing the amount of a certain natural substance in the brain.

Depakote is also known as Valproate semisodium, Divalproex sodium, Valproic acid, Divaa.

It is anticonvulsant.

Generic name of Depakote is Divalproex Sodium.

Brand names of Depakote are Depakote, Depakote ER, Depakote Sprinkles.

Dosage

Take Depakote tablets orally with food.

Take Depakote at the same time every day with water.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Depakote suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Depakote and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Depakote overdosage: shallow, breathing, weak pulse, sleepiness, feeling drowsy, loss of consciousness.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Depakote are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Depakote if you are allergic to Depakote components.

Do not take Depakote if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take medicines which cause sleepiness.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Depakote if you suffer from or have a history of vomiting, extreme tiredness and/or irritability; episodes of confusion and loss of ability to think and understand, especially during pregnancy or after childbirth; coma (loss of consciousness for a period of time); difficulty coordinating your movements; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); cytomegalovirus (CMV; a virus that can cause symptoms in people who have weak immune systems); hyperlipidemia (higher than normal amount of fats in the blood); or kidney disease, urea cycle disorder, mental retardation.

Be careful with Depakote if you take aspirin, barbiturates such as phenobarbital and seconal blood thinners such as Coumadin, Cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral), Nortriptyline (Pamelor), clonazepam (Klonopin), ethosuximide (Zarontin), felbamate (Felbatol), lamotrigine (Lamictal), phenytoin (Dilantin), and Primidone Mysoline), Rifampin (Rifater, Rimactane), Sleep aids such as Halcion, Tolbutamide (Orinase),Tranquilizers such as Valium and Xanax, Zidovudine (Retrovir), Amitriptyline (Elavil), carbamazepine (Tegretol), Merrem IV (meropenem for injection).

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Depakote you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

Avoid alcohol while taking Depakote.

Avoid being dehydrating.

If you are going to have a surgery, be careful with Depakote.

It can be dangerous to stop Depakote taking suddenly.

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N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists appear to enhance the anticonvulsant activity of antiepileptic drugs in several models of epilepsy. Therefore, the current study evaluates the modulatory effect of magnesium (Mg(2+)), a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on a subprotective dose of valproate (VPA) against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions. Male Wister rats received either saline or PTZ (60mg/kg, i.p.). The other three groups were pretreated with Mg(2+) (40mg/kg, p.o., 4weeks), single subprotective dose of VPA (100mg/kg, i.p.), or Mg(2+) with VPA, before PTZ injection. PTZ provoked clonic convulsions, reduced GABA content, deranged brain redox status, and elevated nitric oxide (NO). Neither the subprotective dose of VPA nor Mg(2+) alone guarded against clonic seizures invoked by PTZ, an effect that was achieved only by their combination and supported by a significant delay in seizure latency. Moreover, VPA leveled off glycine and aspartate, exerted no effect on glutamate, and unexpectedly reduced GABA and taurine levels. Mg(2+) alone or in combination showed the same pattern on the aforementioned amino acids, except for taurine. All regimens restored glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC); however, only VPA normalized NO level. This study demonstrates that Mg(2+) could enhance the antiepileptic efficacy of a subprotective dose of VPA, possibly by improving redox balance and modulation of some brain amino acids.

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Numerous xenobiotics are toxic to human and animal cells by interacting with their metabolism, but the precise metabolic step affected and the biochemical mechanism behind such a toxicity often remain unknown. In an attempt to reduce the ignorance in this field, we have developed a new approach called cellular metabolomics. This approach, developed in vitro, provides a panoramic view not only of the pathways involved in the metabolism of physiologic substrates of any normal or pathologic human or animal cell but also of the beneficial and adverse effects of xenobiotics on these metabolic pathways. Unlike many cell lines, precision-cut tissue slices, for which there is a renewed interest, remain metabolically differentiated for at least 24-48 h and allow to study the effect of xenobiotics during short-term and long-term incubations. Cellular metabolomics (or cellular metabonomics), which combines enzymatic and carbon 13 NMR measurements with mathematical modeling of metabolic pathways, is illustrated in this brief chapter for studying the effect of insulin on glucose metabolism in rat liver precision-cut slices, and of valproate on glutamine metabolism in human renal cortical precision-cut slices. The use of very small amounts of test compounds allows to predict their toxic effect and eventually their beneficial effects very early in the research and development processes. Cellular metabolomics is complementary to other omics approaches, but, unlike them, provides functional and dynamic pieces of information by measuring enzymatic fluxes.

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A prospective trial carried out with 24 children with Sydenham's chorea.

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The Slit-Robo GTPase activating protein 3 (srGAP3) is an important modulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics and has an important influence on a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Mutations in the SRGAP3 gene on chromosome 3p25 have been found in patients with intellectual disability. Genome-wide association studies and behavioral assays of knockout mice had also revealed SRGAP3 as a risk gene for schizophrenia. We have recently shown that srGAP3 protein undergoes regulated shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus during neuronal development. It is shown here that nuclear-localized srGAP3 interacts with the SWI/SNF remodeling factor Brg1. This interaction is mediated by the C-terminal of srGAP3 and the ATPase motif of Brg1. In the primary cultured rat cortical neurons, the levels of nuclear-localized srGAP3 and its interaction with Brg1 have a significant impact on dendrite complexity. Furthermore, the interaction between srGAP3 and Brg1 was also involved in valproic acid (VPA) -induced neuronal differentiation of Neuro2a cells. We then show that GTP-bound Rac1 and GAP-43 may be potential mediators of nuclear srGAP3 and Brg1. Our results not only indicate a novel signaling pathway that contributes to neuronal differentiation and dendrite morphology, but also implicate a novel molecular mechanism underlying srGAP3 regulation of gene expression.

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To increase understanding of reported ADRs in Canadian children.

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The average availability of generic AEDs in the public sector was <50% for all medicines except diazepam injection. Private sector availability of generic oral AEDs ranged from 42.2% for phenytoin to 69.6% for phenobarbital. Public sector patient prices for generic carbamazepine and phenytoin were 4.95 and 17.50 times higher than international reference prices, respectively, whereas private sector patient prices were 11.27 and 24.77 times higher, respectively. For both medicines, originator brand prices were about 30 times higher. The highest prices were observed in the lowest income countries. The lowest-paid government worker would need wages from 1-2.6 days' to purchase a month's supply of phenytoin, whereas carbamazepine would cost 2.7-16.2 days' wages. Despite its widespread use in LMICs, WHO/HAI survey data for phenobarbital was only available from a small number of countries.

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Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, model, catgut implantation, medication groups (10 rats/group). The catgut implantation was performed at "Yintang" (EX 2) to "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Changqiang" (GV 1) on day 1, 4 and 7. The epileptic model was made by intraperitoneal injection of penicillin sodium on the last day of the treatment. In the medication group, intragastric administration of valproic acid sodium was conducted once a day for consecutive 7 days. Behavior measurement and EEG recording were carried out shortly after the penicillin administration.

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Polypharmacy (the prescription of more than one therapy for a single patient) and subcutaneous (s.c.) sumatriptan tolerability were prospectively studied in 12,339 migraineurs, each followed for up to 1 year. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were minimal and mirrored United States Imitrex labeling. Drug usage and compliance monitoring were automatically interfaced with prescription refill. Concomitant drugs were used by 79% of patients, with analgesics, antidepressants, and sedatives used most commonly. No adverse interactions between sumatriptan and neurological drugs were found, possibly reflecting relative inability of the former to cross the blood-brain barrier. No difference in cardiovascular adverse events was associated with oral contraceptive use, which was more common than expected. No other drug class influenced adverse event probability, although sample sizes for these comparisons was sometimes <400 patients. This study confirms the prevalence of polypharmacy in migraine, identifies the drugs used, and concludes that, on a population basis, the tolerability of s.c. sumatriptan, when used according to labeled instructions, is unaffected by these concomitant drugs.

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Eighty-four percent of the divalproex-loading patients, but only 30% of the divalproex-nonloading patients, had valproate serum levels above 50 microg/mL at day 3 of the study. None of the lithium-treated patients had serum lithium levels above 0.8 mEq/L at study day 3. No patient was removed from the study because of an adverse event. There were no significant differences between the groups in the frequencies or types of adverse events.

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Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy assists for personalized drug therapy but require numerous patient visits for venous blood sampling. DBS is an alternative matrix applicable to home sampling which can save time and reduce stress for this patient group.

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This work aimed to evaluate the metabolic and atherogenic effects of long-term antiepileptic drugs in a group of Egyptian epileptic patients. Sixty-nine epileptic patients on antiepileptic drug monotherapy for at least 2 years and 34 control subjects were recruited in this study. Patients were divided into 5 subgroups according to antiepileptic drugs used (valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate, and levetiracetam). Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were measured for all subjects. Significant higher mean values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein / high-density lipoprotein ratio, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, significantly lower mean value of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significantly larger diameter of common carotid artery intima-media thickness were observed in each drug-treated group versus control group. Our study supports that long-term monotherapy treatment with valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and topiramate had altered markers of vascular risk that might enhance atherosclerosis, whereas levetiracetam exerted minimal effect.

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depakote overdose levels 2017-06-28

Twenty-seven patients were randomly assigned to groups that received double-blind treatment with paroxetine Cutting Crestor Tablets In Half or a second mood stabilizer (lithium carbonate or divalproex sodium) for 6 weeks.

depakote mg 2015-03-25

Using the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model, indicative of tonic-clonic seizures in humans, the present study was aimed at characterizing the interaction between remacemide and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. Isobolographic analysis indicated additive interactions between remacemide and valproate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin (for all fixed ratios of tested drugs: 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1). Additivity was also observed between remacemide and phenobarbital applied in proportions of 1:1 and 3:1. In contrast, the combination of remacemide and phenobarbital at the fixed-ratio of 1:3 resulted in antagonism. Neither motor performance nor long-term memory was impaired by remacemide or by carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproate whether or not these drugs were administered singly or in combination. In combination with remacemide, brain concentrations of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin were increased by 71, 21, and 16%, Avelox Generic Equivalent respectively. Although brain valproate concentrations were unaffected by remacemide co-administration, brain concentrations of remacemide and its active metabolite, desglycinyl-remacemide, were increased by 68 and 162%, respectively. In contrast, phenobarbital co-administration was associated with decreases in brain remacemide (27%) and desglycinyl-remacemide (9%) concentrations, whereas only remacemide concentrations (increased by 131%) were affected by carbamazepine co-administration. In conclusion, significant and desirable pharmacodynamic interactions were observed between remacemide and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. However, the concurrent pharmacokinetic interactions associated with remacemide complicate these observations and do not make remacemide a good candidate for adjunctive treatment of epilepsy.

depakote 600 mg 2017-12-30

A spectrophotomeric assay was used to monitor the lysis of fibrin clots in the presence of rt-PA and the drugs levetiracetam, Artane Drugs valproic acid, phenytoin and phenobarbital.

depakote show on drug test 2016-09-01

We found that VPA induced a dose-dependent growth inhibition of NET cells in vitro, which was mainly due Avapro 150 Mg Generic to activation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. VPA induced a major transcriptional response by altering the expression of 16-19% of the protein-coding genes in NET cell lines. Pathway analysis allowed the prediction of alterations in key regulatory pathways, e.g. activation of TGF-β1, FOXO3, p53 signalling, and inhibition of MYC signalling. Analysis of GOT1 xenografts showed reduced growth and reduced Ki-67 index, as well as an increase in apoptosis and necrosis after VPA treatment.

depakote drug interactions side effects 2017-01-27

There was no difference between the Rulide And Drinking Alcohol current biochemical parameters in epileptic children. Serum-free T4 was decreased, when compared with group IV. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was increased in group II, compared with group IV. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was increased in group III, compared with group IV. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was correlated with thyroid-stimulating hormone and valproic acid levels.

depakote 7 mg 2016-03-25

This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2001, Issue 4.Worldwide, particularly in the developing world, phenytoin and Cipro 5 Suspension phenobarbitone are commonly used antiepileptic drugs, primarily because they are inexpensive. The aim of this review is to summarise data from existing trials comparing phenytoin and phenobarbitone.

depakote er dosage strengths 2015-10-07

Patients with epilepsy have excess morbidity and mortality due to ischemic cardiovascular disease. Many of these patients have elevated concentrations of plasma total homocysteine (Hcy), which is an acknowledged risk factor for cardiovascular Eldepryl Dosage disease, venous thromboembolic disease, foetal malformations and dementia. Hyperhomocysteinemia may have negative effects through mechanisms involving oxidative damage. In the present study, we have investigated the aminothiol redox-status in patients on antiepileptic drugs. Thereafter, in a subset of patients with elevated total Hcy, we evaluated the effect of B-vitamin therapy.

lithium and depakote overdose treatment 2016-11-20

Despite interruption of Glucovance Tablet Uses the treatment, a long-lasting effect of VPA was observed. A possible relationship between the effect on NF-L and the prevention of depressive-like behaviour recurrence could be suggested.

depakote sprinkles drug class 2015-01-09

We evaluated the antidepressant and Valtrex Dosage Hsv 2 mood-stabilizing effects of lamotrigine, a novel anticonvulsant, in a group of rapid-cycling bipolar patients. Most were already nonresponders or poor partial responders to other conventional mood-stabilizing agents.

depakote brand name 2016-08-17

Nine (64%) patients were much improved based on Clinical Norvasc Dosage Side Effects Global Impression (CGI) scores, and mean Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores improved from 48.2 +/- 4.9 to 58.8 +/- 7.3 (t = 4.49, P = 0.0006, paired t test). Treatment was well tolerated, and no patient experienced worsening of mood symptoms while receiving risperidone.

depakote er drug information 2016-09-24

LTG pharmacokinetics was evaluated using single-dose LTG (25 mg) given before and following low-dose VPA co-medication (125, 250, 375, 500 mg per day VPA) in healthy Lexapro Overdose Amount subjects. Serial blood samples were obtained over 120 h post-dose in order to calculate LTG kinetic parameters including area under the concentration-time curve, apparent oral clearance, elimination half-life and percent inhibition of LTG clearance at each dosage level of VPA. Pharmacodynamic modeling was used to calculate EC(50) values for this interaction.

depakote xr dosage 2015-03-15

Converting from monotherapy with a less effective or poorly tolerated conventional antiepileptic drug to monotherapy with lamotrigine is associated with better clinical and humanistic outcomes than converting to an alternative conventional antiepileptic drug.

depakote 1000 mg per day 2015-03-14

A simple, accurate, and sensitive liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of 10 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs; gabapentin (GBP), levetiracetam (LEV), valproic acid (VPA), lamotrigine (LTG), carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-epoxide), zonisamide (ZNS), oxcarbazepine (OXC), topiramate (TPM), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT)) in human plasma as a tool for drug monitoring. d(10)-Phenytoin (d(10)-PHT) and d(6-)valproic acid (d(6)-VPA) were used as internal standards for the positive- and negative-ionization modes, respectively. Plasma samples were precipitated by the addition of acetonitrile, and supernatants were analyzed on a C18 reverse-phase column using an isocratic elution. Detection was carried out in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The calibration curves were linear over a 50-fold concentration range, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.997 for all AEDs. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 12%, and the accuracy was between 85.9 and 114.5%. This method was successfully used in the identification and quantitation of AEDs in patients undergoing mono- or polytherapy for epilepsy.

depakote high dose 2015-02-27

This MET-induced epigenetic mouse models the neurochemical and behavioral aspects of SZ that can be corrected by positively modulating the action of GABA at alpha(5)-containing GABA(A) receptors with imidazenil or by inhibiting HDACs with valproate, thus opening exciting new avenues for treatment of epigenetically modified chromatin in SZ morbidity.

depakote overdose death 2016-01-29

Phosphoinositide (PI) signalling is one of multiple signalling cascades involved in chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum. PI signalling comprises a complex interaction of multiple enzymes, each with multiple phospholipid substrates and thus products, often relying upon several enzymes in series to produce a signal. PI turnover, controlled by both kinases and phosphatases, is also rapidly triggered and spatially constricted. This complexity makes understanding acute regulation of these signalling components problematic. However, the ubiquitous and extensive roles of phospholipids, including phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)), in cell signalling and developmental processes make understanding the production of these compounds of great importance. We have shown the acute reduction of PI phosphorylation in response to a widely used bipolar disorder and epilepsy treatment, valproic acid, as a potential therapeutic role for the drug using chemotactically competent Dictyostelium. Here we describe a means for measuring acute in vivo phospholipid labelling in Dictyostelium.