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Duricef

Generic Duricef is a medication of cephalosporin antibiotic group. Generic Duricef is used to treat nose, throat, urinary tract, and skin infections that are caused by specific bacteria. Generic Duricef is a cephalosporin-type antibiotic. Generic Duricef prevents bacteria to grow in the organism.

Other names for this medication:
Acer, Actidrox, Bless, Cedrox, Cefadil, Cefastar, Eliminate, Paxyl

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Also known as:  Cefadroxil.

Description

Generic Duricef is a medication of cephalosporin antibiotic group.

Generic Duricef is used to treat nose, throat, urinary tract, and skin infections that are caused by specific bacteria. Generic Duricef prevents bacteria to grow in the organism.

Brand name of Generic Duricef is Duricef.

Generic name of Generic Duricef is Cefadroxil Monohydrate.

Dosage

Generic Duricef can be taken in form of tablets which should be taken orally.

Take Generic Duricef with or without food.

For adults:

For urinary tract infections the usual dosage for uncomplicated infections is a total of 1 to 2 grams per day in a single dose or 2 smaller doses. For all other urinary tract infections, the usual dosage is a total of 2 grams per day taken in 2 doses.

For skin and skin structure infections the usual dose is a total of 1 gram per day in a single dose or 2 smaller doses.

Throat Infections"Strep Throat and Tonsillitis: The usual dosage is a total of 1 gram per day in a single dose or 2 smaller doses for 10 days.

For children:

For urinary tract and skin infections the usual dosage is 30 milligrams per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day, divided into 2 doses and taken every 12 hours.

For throat infections the recommended dosage per day is 30 milligrams per 2.2 pounds of body weight in a single dose or 2 smaller doses.

In the treatment of strep throat the dosage should be taken for at least 10 days.

Do not stop taking Generic Duricef suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Duricef and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Duricef overdosage: seizures.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw the medicine away after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Duricef are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Duricef if you are allergic to Generic Duricef components.

Be very careful with Generic Duricef while you are pregnant or have nurseling.

Try to be careful with Generic Duricef usage in case of having kidney disorder, gastrointestinal disease.

Try to be careful with Generic Duricef if you have allergies to medicines, foods or other substances.

Try to be careful with Generic Duricef if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation or dietary supplement.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Duricef taking suddenly.

duricef drug

The in vitro activity of loracarbef, penicillin V, cefaclor and cefadroxil against log and stationary phase cultures of group A streptococci was compared. MICs and MBCs were determined with the broth dilution method and by a modified agar plate dilution technique where the beta-lactams were inactivated after the MICs were determined allowing inhibited but not killed organisms to grow on further incubation. The MICs of loracarbef and the two cephalosporins were 16-32 times higher than those of penicillin V. In plate dilution the MBC/MIC ratios of all agents were < or = 2 for log phase cultures. With stationary phase cultures, especially in the broth dilution test, the MBC/MIC ratios of loracarbef and the two cephalosporins were > or = 32 for a large number of strains. The phenotype response of stationary phase cultures to beta-lactam antibiotics may not only be related to the physiological status of the streptococci, to the culture conditions and to the beta-lactam under test. The present investigation indicated that the phenotypic response was also an intrinsic property of certain strains.

duricef capsules

We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. MICs for B. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). When B. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the MIC of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill 99% of the organisms.

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The aerobic and anaerobic flora from gingival pockets of 49 dogs with severe gingivitis and periodontitis were cultured. The susceptibility of each isolate to four antimicrobial agents currently approved for veterinary use in the USA (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; clindamycin; cefadroxil; and enrofloxacin) was determined. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Clavamox Pfizer Animal Health) had the highest in-vitro susceptibility against all isolates (96%), all aerobes (94%) and all anaerobes (100%) tested. For gram-negative aerobes, enrofloxacin (Baytril, Bayer Corp.) had the highest in-vitro susceptibility activity. For bacteria associated with treatment of gingivitis, which typically are mixed aerobic/anaerobic and gram-positive/gram-negative organisms, the antimicrobial of choice for clinical use based on these susceptibility tests is amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

duricef generic name

We examined the effect of antibiotic therapy on the clinical course of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis in 260 children. After a throat culture had been obtained, each child was evaluated for the presence of predetermined signs and symptoms, and was then randomized in a double-blind manner to receive penicillin V, cefadroxil, or placebo. Of the 194 children with throat cultures positive for GABHS, 68 received penicillin V, 70 received cefadroxil, and 56 received placebo. Approximately 18 to 24 hours later, each patient returned for reevaluation. Significantly fewer children who had received either penicillin or cefadroxil had persistence of each of the three objective signs and each of the three subjective symptoms than did children who had received placebo. In addition, the evaluating physician, parents, and patients all believed that significantly fewer of the patients given antibiotic failed to demonstrate overall clinical improvement.

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Allergic subjects with a selective response to amoxicillin were chosen according to the following criteria: history of an immediate allergic reaction to amoxicillin, negative skin test responses to benzylpenicilloyl and minor determinant mixture of benzylpenicillin, negative RAST response to benzylpenicilloyl, and good tolerance to benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethyl penicillin challenges. In addition, subjects had to have a positive skin test response to amoxicillin and/or positive RAST response to amoxicilloyl or, if these test results were negative, a positive challenge test response to amoxicillin. In vivo cross-reactivity to cefadroxil was assessed by giving oral cefadroxil at increasing doses from 5 to 500 mg. In vitro cross-reactivity was determined by RAST inhibition studies with amoxicilloyl RAST disks and the following monomeric conjugates in the fluid phase: amoxicillin-butylamine, cefadroxil-butylamine, and the side chain para-hydroxy-phenylglycine. Tolerance to cefamandole was determined by giving 100 mg and then 500 mg parenterally.

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A fast and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of cefatrizine, an orally active cephalosporin, in serum and urine is proposed. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography on the octoadecylsilane chemically bonded microparticulate packing, using methanol in 0.03 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 5) as eluent, was used to separate and quantitate the antibiotic. The samples were analysed after deproteinization with trichloroacetic acid and injection of the clear supernatant. The accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure were investigated by determination of the cefatrizine content in spiked serum and urine samples, using cephradine as the internal standard.

duricef liquid dosage

Eight Italian clinical centers carried out a controlled double-blind/double-dummy evaluation of the effectiveness of two different administration schedules of cefatrizine, an orally active cephalosporin. The first schedule provided for once-a-day administration of 1.5 gm of the drug, and the second one for twice-a-day administration of 0.75 gm. The trial included 160 patients affected by bacterial diseases of the respiratory apparatus. The two drug administration schedules were found to be equivalent in clinical and bacteriological results and in tolerability.

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Pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil, a new orally semisynthetic cephalosporin, was studied in 5 subjects with normal renal function and in 20 patients with varying degrees of renal insufficiency. All subjects received 1,000 mg per os in a single dose and the elimination phase was studied. In healthy subjects, elimination half-life (T1/2) was 1.39 +/- 0.06 h. Apparent volume of distribution was 0.305 liters/kg and area under the serum concentration versus time curve AUC was 82.94 +/- 19.98 microgram . h/ml. Peak level averaged 25.72 +/- 4.68 microgram . ml-1 and occurred at 1.20 +/- 0.45 h postingestion. 93.0 +/- 3.6% of the dose was recovered in urine during the first 24 h. Renal and serum clearance averaged 166.7 and 172.4 ml . min-1/1.73 m2, respectively. In patients with renal insufficiency, T1/2 increased to 25.49 h in severe chronic renal failure. Renal impairment did not significantly modify volume of distribution. During a 6- to 8-hour hemodialysis session, antibiotic serum concentrations decreased by 75.4 +/- 5.6%. Dosage schedules could be suggested on the basis of these pharmacokinetic results.

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duricef dosage

To compare the bioavailability of two cefadroxil capsule (500 mg) formulations (Cefadroxila from Eurofarma Laboratórios Ltd, Brazil, as test formulation and Cefamox from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Brazil S.A. as reference formulation) in 24 volunteers of both sexes.

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The apparent functional molecular mass of the kidney peptide/H(+)-symporter was determined by radiation inactivation in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of rat kidney cortex. Purified BBMV were irradiated at low temperatures with high energy electrons generated by a 10-MeV linear accelerator at doses from 0 to 30 megarads. Uptake studies were performed with [3H]cefadroxil, a beta-lactam antibiotic which serves as a substrate for the kidney peptide/H(+)-symporter. Inhibition of influx of [3H]cefadroxil into BBMV was used to determine the functional molecular mass of the transporter. Additionally, direct photoaffinity labeling of the transport- and/or binding proteins for [3H]cefadroxil in control and irradiated BBMV was performed to determine the molecular mass of the putative transporter by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Initial rates of pH-gradient dependent uptake of [3H]cefadroxil decreased progressively as a function of radiation dose. The apparent radiation inactivation size (RIS) of the transport function was found to be 414 +/- 16 kDa. Direct photoaffinity labeling yielded labeled membrane proteins with apparent molecular masses of 130 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively. The proteins displayed different labeling characteristics with respect to incubation time, specificity and the response to irradiation. It appears that only a 105 kDa protein is directly involved in transport function since (a) only it showed a specific pH gradient dependent labeling pattern and (b) the covalent incorporation of [3H]cefadroxil into this protein decreased parallel to the loss of transport function in irradiated BBMV. The peptide/H(+)-symporter in kidney brush-border membranes therefore appears to have a monomer mass of 105 kDa and may function in an oligomeric arrangement.

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The average rates of antimicrobial resistance were low and did not increase between 2003 and 2012 in E. coli urinary isolates among Swedish nursing home residents. Antibiotic treatment during the previous month and hospitalisation during the previous six months predicted higher resistance rates.

duricef pediatric dosage

Four patients with anaphylaxis to cefaclor and 35 nonatopic controls never exposed to cefaclor were studied. Skin tests and oral challenges with this drug were performed. The specific IgE response to the antigenic determinant of cefaclor-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate was compared in each patient. The serum specific IgE to cefaclor-HSA conjugate was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, ELISA inhibition studies using various concentrations of cefaclor-HSA, HSA alone, and free cefaclor were performed, as were hapten inhibition studies using cefaclor, cephalexin, cefadroxil, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime.

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The pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil and cephalexin were examined following single oral doses of either 250, 500 or 1000 mg to a total of 36 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were divided into groups of 12 per dose-group and solution doses of cefadroxil or cephalexin were administered after an overnight fast according to a crossover design for the cephalosporins but not for doses. Serial blood and urine samples were collected from each individual and were analyzed for cefadroxil or cephalexin using validated HPLC assays with UV detection. The individual subject plasma concentration-time data for each cephalosporin were analyzed using noncompartmental methods. Profiles for cephalexin in plasma showed sharper and higher peaks than those for cefadroxil. Although values for the peak concentrations (Cmax) for cefadroxil were lower than that of cephalexin, the levels of cefadroxil in plasma and urine remained above the reported minimum inhibitory concentrations of susceptible organisms for longer period of time than those of cefalexin. The elimination half-life (t1/2) of cefadroxil (about 2 h) was significantly longer than that of cephalexin (about 1 h). The values for Cmax and AUC0-infinity values for both these cephalosporins showed dose-proportional increase, whereas t1/2, renal clearance (CLR) remained independent of dose. These observations confirm that cefadroxil and cephalexin obey linear pharmacokinetics. The CLr of both the cephalosporins were significantly higher than the average glomerular filtration rate at each dose level. The urinary recovery (% Xu) of each cephalosporin, accounted for over 80 per cent of the administered dose, and no significant differences in % Xu were observed between the two cephalosporins. These data suggest that the systemic availability of cefadroxil and cephalexin is similar at each dose level.

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Oral cefadroxil in doses of 0-6-1-8 g per day given on twice or three times daily schedules was effective in the treatment of thirty-six patients with infections such as abscesses, carbuncles, cellulitis, furunculosis and impetigo. Staphylococcus aureus strains and beta-haemolytic streptococci, alone or in combination, were cultured from lesions before treatment. In vitro studies with test discs showed that all the organisms were sensitive to cefadroxil, but twenty-three of twenty-nine S aureus strains and one of the seven streptococci strains were resistant to penicillin G. Pre- and post-treatment laboratory tests of renal, hepatic and haematopoietic functions produced no evidence of drug toxicity. The cefadroxil dosage effective in this study is lower than that recommended for currently available oral cephalosporins, which must be given on a four times daily schedule.

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duricef medication 2016-03-16

The results of previous work performed in our laboratory using an in situ perfusion technique in rats and rabbit apical brush border membrane vesicles have suggested that the intestinal uptake Ceftin Dosing of valacyclovir (VACV) appears to be mediated by multiple membrane transporters. Using these techniques, it is difficult to characterize the transport kinetics of VACV with each individual transporter in the presence of multiple known or unknown transporters. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interaction of VACV and the human intestinal peptide transporter using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that overexpress the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) gene. VACV uptake was significantly greater in CHO cells transfected with hPEPT1 than in cells transfected with only the vector, pcDNA3. The optimum pH for VACV uptake was determined to occur at pH 7.5. Proton cotransport was not observed in hPEPT1/CHO cells, consistent with previously observed results in tissues and Caco-2 cells. VACV uptake was concentration dependent and saturable with a Michaelis-Menten constant and maximum velocity of 1.64 +/- 0.06 mM and 23.34 +/- 0.36 nmol/mg protein/5 min, respectively. A very similar Km value was obtained in hPEPT1/CHO cells and in rat and rabbit tissues and Caco-2 cells, suggesting that hPEPT1 dominates the intestinal transport properties of VACV in vitro. VACV uptake was markedly inhibited by various dipeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics, and Ki values of 12.8 +/- 2.7 and 9.1 +/- 1.2 mM were obtained for Gly-Sar and cefadroxil at pH 7.5, respectively. The present results demonstrate that VACV is a substrate for the human intestinal peptide transporter in hPEPT1/CHO cells and that although transport is pH dependent, proton cotransport is not apparent. Also, the results demonstrate that the hPEPT1/CHO cell system has use in investigating the transport kinetics of drugs with the human intestinal peptide transporter hPEPT1; however, the extrapolation of these transport properties to the in vivo situation requires further investigation.

duricef and alcohol 2017-05-03

A 26-year-old female patient, suffering from recurrent attacks of ulcerative colitis accompanied by extraintestinal symptoms (erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum), was evaluated for the effect of antibacterial agents on the intestinal bacteria and their enzymatic activities. The enzymes were assayed both at the onset of disease symptoms and after treatment with each of five drug regimens (fluconazole and cefadroxil, cefuroxime axetil and cestriaxone sodium, ciprofloxacin and cestriaxone sodium, ciprofloxacin alone, and ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and cephalexin). The activities of azoreductase, nitroreductase, oxidoreductase, glucuronidase, and sulfatase were generally lower following all of the treatments, especially when ciprofloxacin was included. The DNA from each sample was amplified by PCR, using random primers. Profiles of amplified DNA on agarose gels showed different patterns, indicating differences in the microflora before and after the antimicrobial treatments. The clinical response to antibacterial therapy was consistent with the decreased bacterial Elavil Pill enzymatic activities and changes in the microbial population. Ciprofloxacin, which was associated with the most dramatic falls in enzymatic activity, also had the best clinical results. We conclude that intestinal bacteria and their enzymes play important roles in ulcerative colitis and that population changes can be monitored using PCR profiles.

duricef 500 syrup 2017-01-31

An inoculum of 5x10(9) organisms per ml. of Escherichia coli strain BH-5 was instilled into the bladder of rats and the urethra was occluded for Ventolin Tabs 4 hours. Groups of animals were and were not treated with 15 mg./kg. cefadroxil or 10 mg./kg. ibuprofen given twice daily for 5 days, or the 2 drugs combined. Treatment began 72 hours after inoculation. In an additional group of rats sterile phosphate buffered saline was instilled into the bladder. In each rat the kidneys were examined grossly and microscopically 6 weeks later.

duricef capsules 2015-02-21

The aim of the present study was to investigate amoxicillin (AMX) distribution in muscle interstitial fluid by microdialysis in healthy, awake rats. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the jugular vein and hind leg muscle. Probe recoveries in each rat were determined by retrodialysis with cefadroxil. AMX was administered as a bolus dose of 50 mg.kg(-1), and microdialysis samples were collected during 180 min. Concentrations of unbound Viagra Online Canada Scams drug in blood and muscle were analyzed simultaneously by a population approach. Simulations were conducted using a hybrid, physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to investigate the potential impact of tissue blood flow on muscle AMX distribution. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model described adequately the unbound amoxicillin concentration-time profiles in blood and muscle. Muscle AMX distribution equilibrium was rapidly achieved. Consequently, the best results were obtained by considering concentrations in muscle as part of the central compartment. The ratio of the concentration of unbound drug in muscle to that in blood (Rmodel) was estimated to 0.80 by the model, which is close to the mean value obtained by noncompartmental data analysis (Rarea= 0.86 +/- 0.29). Simulations conducted with a hybrid, physiologically based pharmacokinetic model suggest that a muscle blood flow reduction of 30% to 50%, such as could be encountered in critical care patients, has virtually no effect on muscle AMX concentration profiles. In conclusion, this study has clearly demonstrated that AMX distributes rapidly and extensively within muscle interstitial fluid, consistent with theory, and that altered muscle blood flow seems unlikely to have a major effect on these distribution characteristics.

duricef dosing 2016-07-08

In the present study, a phase transited nondisintegrating polymeric capsular system in achieving delayed as well as improved osmotic flow for the model drug cefadroxil was developed. Asymmetric membrane capsule (AMC) was prepared by precipitation of asymmetric membrane (AM) on the fabricated glass mold Lexapro Decrease Dosage pins via wet phase inversion process. Effect of different formulation variables were studied based on 23 factorial design, namely, level of osmogen, ethylcellulose, pore former, apart from studying the effect of varying osmotic pressure on drug release. Scanning electron microscopy showed an outer dense non-porous region and an inner lighter porous region for the prepared AMC. Statistical test (Dunnett multiple comparison test) was applied for in vitro drug release (n=6) at P < 0.05. The best formulation in the design closely corresponded to the extra design checkpoint formulation by a similarity factor (f2) of 98.91, and a difference factor (f1) of 2.17. The drug release was independent of agitation intensity but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium. The release kinetics followed Higuchi model, and mechanism of release was Fickian diffusion.

is duricef a sulfa drug 2016-11-30

The complexation of penicillin (1a-c) and cephalosporin (2a,b) antibiotics with cyclodextrins (CDs), both natural [beta-CD (3b) and gamma-CD (3c)] and carboxylated [heptakis(6-oxycarbonylethylthio-6-deoxy)- Cymbalta Bad Drug Lawyers beta-CD sodium salt (4b) and octakis(6-oxycarbonylethylthio-6-deoxy)-gamma-CD (4c) sodium salt], has been studied at neutral pH. Penicillins [ampicillin (1a), amoxicillin (1b) and dicloxacillin (1c) form inclusion complexes with the above CDs, as was shown by extensive NMR spectroscopic studies, whereas cephalosporins (cephalexin, cefadroxil) do not. Inclusion of the penicillins into either 3b or 4b was not accompanied by significant chemical shift changes in the 1H NMR spectra. On the contrary, with the wider 3c and its derivative 4c inclusion was evidenced by both chemical shift displacements of the cavity protons and intermolecular interactions, indicating the formation of primarily 1:1 guest-host inclusion complexes. The binding constants for 1a/3c, 1a/4c and 1c/3c were calculated as 19 +/- 4, 17 +/- 0.9 and 622 +/- 200 M(-1), respectively. With 4c, a 1:2 stoichiometry was also found. In addition, simultaneous formation of aggregates by external association takes place in solution, as shown by the ESI-mass spectrometric data. Studies on the hydrolysis of ampicillin under pseudo-first order conditions using an excess of 3c, 4c and of linear maltoheptaose at pH 7 showed that the drug hydrolysed at a similar rate in all cases. In the presence, however, of beta-lactamase enzyme and the carboxylated host 4c, ampicillin degraded twice as slowly (0.008 h(-1)) as in the presence of beta-lactamase alone (0.017 h(-1)). This was explained by the effective protection provided by both inclusion and external association of the host. The interaction, therefore, of penicillins with carboxylated CDs may present a means to lessen the chemical instability of these drugs in the presence of beta-lactamase enzymes.

duricef reviews 2015-07-22

Female aged 55 years presented with signs and symptoms of borderline lepromatous leprosy and presence of Dosis Cefixime Tablet Pada Anak a non-healing ulcer and multiple haemorrhagic blisters over dorsum of both feet. Discharge from the various lesions was subjected to microbiological examination and an unusual organism Shewanella purtefaciens was isolated which was sensitive to most routine antibiotics. Patient responded well to cephadroxil therapy with uneventful and complete healing of ulcer and blisters.

duricef oral suspension 2015-05-12

Cefdinir, a new oral cephalosporin, was compared to cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefixime, and cefuroxime against greater than 5000 recent aerobic clinical isolates. This multicenter Antabuse Medicine study revealed broad-spectrum cefdinir activity against all Enterobacteriaceae (MIC50s, 0.06-2 micrograms/ml) except Enterobacter cloacae, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens (MIC50s, greater than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml). Oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci (MIC90s, 0.5-2 micrograms/ml), beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group B (MIC90, 0.06 micrograms/ml), and Acinetobacter lwoffii were also susceptible to cefdinir. The activity of cefdinir was similar to that of cefixime and cefuroxime against Gram-negative organisms and superior to all tested oral cephems when tested against Gram-positive cocci. None of the cephalosporins were active against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas spp., or Xanthomonas maltophilia. MIC quality control range guidelines were established for the strains recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards documents.

duricef overdose 2015-11-24

A simple high performance liquid chromatographic Xenical Side Effects Diet Pill method with ultraviolet detection at 229 nm is described for quantitation of amoxycillin in plasma. After deproteination of plasma samples with perchloric acid and adjustment of the pH to 4.9, the supernatant was injected onto a reversed phase C18 column, using acetonitrile:phosphate buffer (0.01 M, pH 7.4) (1:25 v/v) as the mobile phase. Amoxycillin and the internal standard, cefadroxil, were eluted at 23 min and 12 min, respectively, without interference from endogenous substances. Processed samples were stable for at least 24 h at room temperature which permitted automated batch processing overnight. Calibration plots of the amoxycillin to cefadroxil peak-height ratio vs. amoxycillin concentration were linear (P < 0.0001; r > or = 0.995) from 0.25 mg/L to at least 16.0 mg/L. Between-day and within-day imprecision (CV) ranged between 3.7% and 17.7%. Absolute recovery for amoxycillin and cefadroxil exceeded 82%. The application was demonstrated by the analysis of amoxycillin in human plasma after a single oral dose of amoxycillin (250 mg) suspension.

duricef uti dosage 2016-06-27

l. Recently two genes have been identified by expression cloning that encode mammalian epithelial peptide transporters capable of translocating di- and tripeptides and selected peptidomimetics by stereoselective and rheogenic substrate-H+ cotransport. PepT1 from rabbit or human small intestine induces a transport activity with high transport capacity but rather low substrate affinity when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, the renal carrier PepT2 is a high affinity-type transporter with a lower maximal transport capacity. In addition, both transporters show differences in pH dependence and substrate specificity. 2. As a first approach to identify structural components of the transport proteins that determine their phenotypical characteristics, we constructed a recombinant chimeric peptide transporter (CH1Pep) in which the aminoterminal region (residues 1-401) is derived from PepT2 whereas the carboxyterminal region (residues 402-707) starting at the end of transmembrane domain 9 is derived from PepT1. Expression of Plavix Drug Interactions Omeprazole PepT1, PepT2 and CH1Pep in Xenopus oocytes allowed the characteristics of the transporters to be determined by flux studies employing a radiolabelled dipeptide and by the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. 3. Our studies indicate that CH1Pep conserves the characteristics of PepT2 including the high affinity for dipeptides and peptidomimetics, the substrate specificity, the pH dependence of transport activation and the electrophysiological parameters. We conclude that the phenotypical characteristics of the renal peptide transporter are determined by its amino-terminal region.

duricef capsules 500mg 2016-10-01

A study was carried out in 12 patients, divided into two groups of 6, to determine tissue levels of cefatrizine in lung (group I) and bronchial secretions (group II) following a single oral dose of 500 mg. In group I, specimens of blood and lung tissue were collected after 2 h from one subgroup of 3 patients and after 3 h from the other subgroup of 3. Average levels were 8.5 and 7.0 mcg/ml for blood and 1.2 and 1.4 mcg/ml for lung tissue respectively. In group II blood and bronchial secretion concentrations were evaluated at the 2nd, 3rd and 6th hours from administration. Average values were 9.1 and 7.7 mcg/ml in blood at 2h and 3h respectively, whereas the average bronchial secretion concentration at the 3rd hour was 10.4 mcg/ml in the first subgroup. In the second subgroup the mean level in blood collected at the 2nd hour was 8.9 mcg/ml, and 2.5 and 4.1 mcg/ml respectively in blood and bronchial secretions at the 6th hour. Cefatrizine levels in bronchial secretions were higher than those in blood at both the 3rd and the 6th hour from administration: this kinetic peculiarity of the drug will doubtless play an important role in the therapeutic efficacy of cefatrizine.

duricef 500 mg dosage 2017-06-13

A one-step immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was developed for the detection of seven kinds of cephems in milk. Polyclonal antibodies (PcAb) with group-specific to cephems were raised in rabbits after immunization with cephalexin-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugate. The specificity of anti-sera was determined by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), and the 50% inhibitions (IC(50)) of cephalexin and cefadroxil were obtained at 1.5 ngmL(-1); IC(50) of cefatiofur, cefapirin, cefazolin, cefalothin and cefotaxine were 4, 3.7, 3.2, 4.5 and 5 ngmL(-1), respectively. The PcAb against cephems were conjugated to colloidal gold particles as the detection reagent for ICA strips to test for cephems. This method achieved semi-quantitative detection of cephems in <5 min, with high sensitivity to cephalexin and cefadroxil (both 0.5 ngmL(-1)). At the same time, cefatiofur, cefapirin, cefazolin, cefalothin and cefotaxine were detected at <100 ngmL(-1) in spiked processed-milk samples. This method was compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by testing 40 milk samples, and the positive samples were validated by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method, with an agreement rate of 100% for both comparisons. In conclusion, the method was rapid and accurate for the multi-residue detection of cephems in milk.

duricef drug 2015-01-21

Several bacteriological and serological variables were studied in connection with a clinical treatment trial in 212 patients with group A streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. Anaerobic incubation was not superior to incubation in 5% CO2 in air for the detection of group A streptococci. Saliva cultures were inferior to conventional throat cultures in detecting group A streptococci. No strains from patients with recurrences were found to be tolerant to penicillin. In several patients (all asymptomatic), group C and G streptococci were found in follow-up cultures. Group A streptococci serology was more often positive after two months than after one month, also in patients without recurrence.

duricef tablet 2016-12-06

The role of an alpha-amino group on interaction with the intestinal and renal peptide carriers (PEPT 1 and PEPT 2, respectively) has been the subject of much investigation. Studies have differed in their conclusions about the role of an alpha-amino group on carrier-mediated absorption. Most studies have used brush-border membrane vesicles or perfused intestinal segments. These techniques enable the determination of membrane uptake and luminal disappearance, respectively, but not transepithelial transport. Transepithelial transport should be more predictive of absorption because it includes basolateral efflux, which could be the rate-limiting process in drug absorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of an alpha-amino group on PEPT 1-mediated transepithelial transport in Caco-2 cells. The apical-to-basolateral permeability coefficients of cephalosporins with or without a free alpha-amino group were determined in the presence and absence of a pH gradient. Permeability coefficients obtained under these conditions were used to calculate a permeability ratio (i.e. P(app) (pH 6.0)/P(app) (pH 7.4)), which should indicate whether PEPT 1 is involved in transport. For cephalosporins with an alpha-amino group (cephalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cephradine, cephaloglycin) the permeability ratios ranged between 1.77 and 2.77. In contrast, the permeability ratios for cephalosporins without an alpha-amino group were 1 (approx.; range = 0.74-1.26). These data suggest that the presence of an alpha-amino group on cephalosporins increases their PEPT 1-mediated transepithelial transport in Caco-2 monolayers.

duricef 500mg capsules 2015-07-03

A pharmacokinetic model incorporating saturable rate of absorption of the Michaelis-Menten type was recently developed to fit cefatrizine (CFZ) plasma concentrations with time following oral administration of 500-mg capsules to humans. This model (MM) was statistically superior to models incorporating either first-order or zero-order absorption. However, the MM model does not predict the reduction in extent of absorption with dose observed in vivo. In this study, a model is proposed in which a time constraint, delta t, is added to the MM model. This new model (MM-delta t) is tested with data following doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg of CFZ. When delta t is set to 1.5 hr, the predicted relative changes with dose in bioavailability, F, peak plasma concentration, Cmax, the time at which the peak concentration occurs tmax, and the mean absorption time, MAT, are generally in good agreement with the experimental data. The time interval of 1.5 hr is compatible with passage by a limited region within the small intestine where drug is absorbed by a facilitated transport mechanism. Influence of each absorption model parameter (Vmax, Km, and delta t) on total area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC), F, Cmax, and tmax, is assessed by simulation. The MM-delta t model is able to summarize the nonlinerity observed in both rate and extent of absorption.