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Otitis externa (OE) is an infection of the external auditory canal affecting children and adults and is associated with symptoms of local pain and tenderness. Twice-daily topical treatment with ofloxacin otic solution (0.3% [Floxin otic solution]) for 10 days has been reported to be as effective and well tolerated as neomycin sulfate/polymyxin B sulfate/hydrocortisone otic suspension (Cortisporin otic suspension) administered four times daily for 10 days.
OE: Floxin otic and Cortisporin TC otic suspension were equally effective in eradicating the three major pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus. CSOM: Ofloxacin otic was effective in an open label trial in uniform eradication of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. AOM-TT: Ofloxacin otic and amoxicillin/clavulanate (by mouth) were equivalent clinically; rates of eradication of initial pathogens were similar for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, but ofloxacin otic was superior in eradication of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa
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The experimental groups of Tenebrio molitor pupae were: A control group exposed only to natural magnetic field and sacrificed at the eighth day of pupal development (C); and pupae kept in a strong static magnetic field for eight days and then sacrificed (MF). Serial brain cross-sections were stained using the Alcian Blue Floxin technique. All the parameters were analyzed and measurements were performed using an image processing and analysis system (Leica, Cambridge, UK) linked to a Leica DMLB light microscope (program is QWin - Leica's Quantimet Windows-based image analysis tool kit).
To compare the penetration of levofloxacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the aqueous humour of eyes with functioning filtering blebs.
We have successfully prepared biocompatible and biodegradable hollow microspheres with sizes between 2 and 5 mum using cyclohexane droplets as a template and the N-methylated chitosan (NMC) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) as the shell. The structure, morphology, and formation process of the hollow microspheres were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that the microspheres exhibited a very smooth and hollow structure. This work confirmed that the hollow microspheres were accomplished by fabricating on the basis of chemical cross-linking on the surface of the emulsion droplets and by removing cyclohexane as core. The results from SEM and TEM indicated that the emulsion droplets covered with cross-linked NMC in the oil-in-water system aggregated together to form a precipitate of microspheres by coagulating with acetone. Moreover, the cross-linked NMC on the surface of the microspheres continuously cured to form the tight shell, whereas the inner area became a cavity with increase of the aging time, leading to the hollow microspheres. In addition, an anti-infective drug, ofloxacin (Floxin), encapsulated in the microspheres more rapidly released to reach 90 wt % at pH 7.4 within 8 h than at pH 1.2.
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In this investigator-masked study, 48 patients with functioning filtering blebs requiring cataract surgery were randomised into six groups of eight patients. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received topical ofloxacin 0.3% (Ocuflox), ciprofloxacin 0.3% (Ciloxan) and levofloxacin (Quixin) respectively; Groups 4, 5 and 6 received the same treatment with the corresponding oral dose of ofloxacin 400 mg (Floxin), ciprofloxacin 400 mg (Cipro) and levofloxacin 250 mg (Levaquin). Aqueous antibiotic levels were determined by mass spectrometry of aqueous samples from each patient.
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Topical levofloxacin penetrates better than ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin into the aqueous of eyes with functioning filtering blebs. The combination of topical and oral levofloxacin may be preferable in the treatment of bleb-associated infections (NCT 00392275; Clinical trials.gov).
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Otorrhea occurs in 21 to 50% of all children with tympanostomy tubes in the United States. More than 1 million children annually undergo tubomyringotomy, constituting placement of more than 2 million tympanostomy tubes each year. The organisms typically responsible for otorrhea are the same as those that cause otitis media in very young children, including Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Drainage from tympanostomy tubes in older children involves organisms that colonize the external auditory canal, the most common being Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Ofloxacin (Floxin otic), a newer fluoroquinalone antibiotic, has several advantages over other agents available for the treatment of otorrhea caused by acute otitis media in patients with tympanostomy tubes. The twice daily dosing regimen encourages better patient adherence to therapy, which is likely to improve treatment efficacy. Ofloxacin has not been associated with ototoxicity in animal models or in children participating in the clinical trials. It provides coverages for a wide range of pathogens, including Pseudomonas sp., and is indicated for use in children > or =1 year old and currently approved for patients > or =12 years with chronic suppurative otitis media. Ofloxacin applied topically in children with tympanostomy tubes in place and purulent otorrhea is as efficacious as oral amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) therapy. Other currently available therapeutic options are discussed.
The morphometric characteristics of A1 and A2 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell and nuclei size, number of nucleoli in the nuclei); corpora allata size, nuclei size, cell number, were investigated in the pupae of yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (L.), exposed to a strong static magnetic field of 320 mT maximum induction (10,000 times higher than the Earth's).
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In each of the studies of OE, CSOM and AOM-TT, ofloxacin otic solution was effective in eradicating the bacterial pathogen from the site of infection: equivalent to Cortisporin for children with OE; superior to amoxicillin/clavulanate for patients with AOM-TT who had acute drainage; and effective in eradicating bacterial pathogens from the external canal of patients with CSOM.
Testing following surgery indicated a sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in 19 (2.1%) ears. The SNHL existed prior to the surgery and there was no deterioration in the hearing postoperatively. The total cost for our study group who used Cortisporin was $15,500. If Floxin had been prescribed the cost would have been $45,000. Had Ciprodex been prescribed, the cost would have been $49,500.