Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ(9,11,13), lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ(9,12,15)). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis)) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13trans)). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation.
karela where to buy
There was a dose-related alteration in the cytoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules with marked reduction in spermatogenic series. The prostate gland showed dilatation as well as increased intraluminal secretions with increasing dose. Moreover, there was a significant recovery of prostate tissue as the sections were similar to their control counterpart.
MAP30 gene was amplified by PCR from MC genomic DNA and identified by sequencing. The target gene was inserted into pET-28a (+) vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Positive clones were selected by PCR. Recombinant protein was efficiently expressed under induction with 1.0 mM Isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) at 30° C for 4 hours. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using MTT assay by treating 5637 bladder cancer cells with 100 µg/mL, 200 µg/mL, and 400 µg/mL concentrations of MAP30 for 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to measure the apoptosis of MAP30-treatedcells in time course experiments.
karela capsules side effects
Bitter melon (BM) is known for its hypoglycemic effect but its effect on rats fed a hyperinsulinemic high fat diet has not been examined. In a dose-response (0.375, 0.75 and 1.5%) study, oral glucose tolerance was improved in rats fed a high fat (HF; 30%) diet supplemented with freeze-dried BM juice at a dose of 0.75% or higher (P < 0.05). At the highest dose, BM-supplemented rats had lower energy efficiency (P < 0.05) and tended (P = 0.10) to have less visceral fat mass. In a subsequent experiment, rats habitually fed a HF diet either continued to consume the diet or were switched to a HF+BM, low fat (LF; 7%) or LF+BM diet for 7 wk. BM was added at 0.75%. Final body weight and visceral fat mass of the two last-mentioned groups were similar to those of rats fed a LF diet for the entire duration. Rats switched to the HF+BM diet gained less weight and had less visceral fat than those fed the HF diet (P < 0.05). The addition of BM did not change apparent fat absorption. BM supplementation to the HF diet improved insulin resistance, lowered serum insulin and leptin but raised serum free fatty acid concentration (P < 0.05). This study reveals for the first time that BM reduces adiposity in rats fed a HF diet. BM appears to have multiple influences on glucose and lipid metabolism that strongly counteract the untoward effects of a high fat diet.
karela capsules uk
All organisms were sensitive to the extract, being considered strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC/MFC < 0.125 mg/ml).
karela tablets side effects
Bitter gourd pulp and seed powders at 20 g kg(-1) and their ethanol/water extracts exhibited stronger antioxygenic activity than other solvent extracts. Bitter gourd pulp and its extracts showed slightly higher antioxygenic activity than bitter gourd seed and its extracts. This may be attributed to the presence of higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, which have been reported as potential antioxidants. The seed portion of bitter gourd contained higher levels of total protein (188.3 g kg(-1) ), total fat (238.9 g kg(-1) ) and crude fibre (350.2 g kg(-1) ) than the pulp portion. Fatty acid analysis of bitter gourd seed oil indicated the presence of α-eleostearic acid, an isomer of conjugated linolenic acid, as a major fatty acid, but this acid was absent in the pulp.
karela 500 mg capsule
Three new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins, 23-O-beta-D-allopyranosyl-5beta,19-epoxycucurbita-6,24-diene-3beta,22(S),23(S)-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 23-O-beta-D-allopyranosyl-5beta,19-epoxycucurbita-6,24-diene-3beta,22(S),23(S)-triol-3-O-beta-D-allopyranoside (2), and 23-O-beta-D-allopyranosyl-5beta,19-epoxycucurbita-6,24-diene-3beta,19(R), 22(S),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-beta-D-allopyranoside (3), named momordicoside M, N, and O, respectively, along with one known saponin momordicoside L (4), were isolated from the fresh fruits of Momordica charantia. The structures of these saponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical properties and spectral data.
α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo.
karela herbal capsules
Patients with PCOS were assessed for PV before and after 6 months of treatment with an OC containing 35 μg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate. PV was determined by a viscometer Type 53610/I SCHOTT-Instruments, Mainz at 37°C.
karela powder vs capsule
The nutritive value of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acid (C18:3 Delta9,11,13alpha-elaeostearic acid) as occurs in karela seed (Momordica charantia) oil was studied. When rats were fed at the 20% level for 6 weeks, the growth pattern of rats and the food efficiency ratio showed a slightly significant difference compared to the group raised on linseed oil with non-conjugated octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3 Delta9,12,15alpha-linolenic acid) as control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and LDL/HDL-cholesterol in serum were significantly higher in karela oil than in linseed oil. The liver lipid profile showed no difference. The total lipid as well as phospholipid concentrations of heart lipid were significantly higher in karela oil. The brain weight of the linseed oil group was significantly higher than the karela group. The brain phospholipid concentration of the karela oil group was significantly higher than that of the linseed oil group.
karela bitter melon tablets
Napins belong to the family of 2S albumin seed storage proteins and are shown to possess antifungal activity. Napins, in general, consist of two subunits (derived from single precursor) linked by disulphide bridges. Usually, reducing environment of the E. coli cytosol is not conducive for proper folding of heterodimeric proteins containing disulphide bridges. Present investigation reports for the first time expression of napin-like protein of Momordica charantia (rMcnapin) in E. coli and its in vitro refolding to produce biologically active protein. Full-length cDNA encoding napin-like protein (2S albumin) was isolated from M. charantia seeds by immunoscreening a cDNA expression library. The cDNA consisted of an open reading frame encoding a protein of 140 amino acid residues. The 36 amino acids at the N-terminus represent the signal and propeptide. The region encoding small and large chains of the M. charantia napin is separated by a linker of 8 amino acid residues. The region encoding napin (along with the linker) was PCR amplified, cloned into pQE-30 expression vector and expressed in E. coli. rMcnapin expressed as inclusion bodies was solubilized and purified by Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography. The denatured and reduced rMcnapin was refolded by rapid dilution in an alkaline buffer containing glycerol and redox couple (GSH and GSSG). Refolded His-rMcnapin displayed similar spectroscopic properties as that of mature napin-like protein of M. charantia with 48.7% alpha-helical content. In addition, it also exhibited antifungal activity against T. hamatum with IC50 of 3 microg/ml. Refolded His-rMcnapin exhibited approximately 90% antifungal activity when compared with that of mature napin-like protein of M. charantia. Thus, a heterologous expression system and in vitro refolding conditions to obtain biologically active napin-like protein of M. charantia were established.