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They may be especially useful in the treatment of certain resistant epilepsy syndromes such as Lennox-Gastaut and West syndromes for which conventional drugs often fail.
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Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels have a key role in the control of heart rate and neuronal excitability. Ivabradine is the first compound acting on HCN channels to be clinically approved for the treatment of angina pectoris. HCN channels may offer excellent opportunities for the development of novel anticonvulsant, anaesthetic and analgesic drugs. In support of this idea, some well-established drugs that act on the central nervous system - including lamotrigine, gabapentin and propofol - have been found to modulate HCN channel function. This Review gives an up-to-date summary of compounds acting on HCN channels, and discusses strategies to further explore the potential of these channels for therapeutic intervention.
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Lamotrigine (LTG) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) that was approved in Japan in 2008. We evaluated the influence of AEDs that induce hepatic enzymes (including phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PB), carbamazepine (CBZ)), valproic acid (VPA), and various combinations of these drugs, on plasma LTG concentration in adult Japanese epilepsy patients. A total of 621 patients (mean age 34.4±11.8 years) were evaluated retrospectively. We calculated the concentration to dose ratio (CD ratio) for LTG with different AED regimens, and employed multiple regression analysis to determine factors influencing the LTG concentration. There was a linear correlation between the dose and concentration of LTG in patients treated with LTG (group I), LTG+VPA (group II), LTG+inducers (group III), or LTG+VPA+inducers (group IV). The mean CD ratio of patients on LTG monotherapy was 1.43±0.4 (μg/mL)/(mg/kg). When LTG was combined with VPA, the CD ratio increased about 2.2-fold, but there was no significant correlation between the CD ratio and VPA concentration. The mean CD ratios calculated in patients receiving LTG+PHT, LTG+PB, and LTG+CBZ were 0.56, 0.84, and 0.91, respectively. Addition of PHT significantly reduced the CD ratio in a concentration-dependent manner, in comparison with PB and CBZ (p<0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the coefficient of determination of groups I, II, III, and IV were 0.94, 0.94, 0.90, and 0.91, respectively. In the clinical setting, these findings can help to estimate LTG concentrations and predict the inducing or inhibiting effects of concomitant AEDs.
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The utilization of most AEDs included in our analysis remained stable over the study period. The greatest increases in utilization of drugs established in Israel were observed for lamotrigine (33%), oxcarbazepine (31%), and primidone (18%). Decreases in use were recorded for carbamazepine (18%) and phenobarbital (15%). Use of older AEDs appeared to be relatively high, compared with the use of newer AEDs.
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CBZ and VPA, but not LTG and OXC, are associated with changes in serum sex-hormone levels in boys and young men with epilepsy. However, the long-term health consequences of these reproductive endocrine changes during pubertal development remain to be established.
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We included 100 patients with epilepsy on stable dosing with lamotrigine as mono or adjunctive therapy. Lamotrigine and lamotrigine N-2-glucuronide concentrations were determined in up to two plasma samples per patient. Patients were genotyped for UGT1A4, UGT2B7, ABCB1 and SLC22A1. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by non-linear mixed effects modelling. Prior knowledge from previous pharmacokinetic studies was incorporated to stabilize the modelling process. A parent-metabolite model was developed to get a more detailed view on the covariate effects on lamotrigine metabolism.
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Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of therapeutic doses of carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC), valproate (VA) and lamotrigine (LA) monotherapy were investigated in patients with beginning epilepsy. Baseline waking EEG (EEG1) was recorded in the untreated state, the second EEG (EEG2) was done after 8 weeks of reaching the therapeutic dose. Left occipital data were used for analysis. QEEG target parameters were absolute band-power (delta: AD, theta: AT, alpha: AA, beta: AB), and alpha mean frequency (AMF). Group effects (untreated versus treated condition in the CBZ, VA, OXC, LA groups) were computed for each target parameter. One group with benign rolandic epilepsy remained untreated for clinical reasons and served to estimate the QEEG test-retest differences. In addition, the individual QEEG response to each drug was calculated as (EEG2-EEG1).
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Lyell's disease is a rare, life-threatening, acute dermatologic disease. The mucous membranes are also often involved. Nearly all cases are induced by medications. There is currently no specific treatment and interdisciplinary cooperation is very important. The authors present a case report of a 15 year old boy with the ocular manifestations of Lyell's disease, triggered by lamotrigine. He was admitted to the burn unit with involvement of 85% of his body surface area. Ocular manifestations documented during hospitalization were classified as mild (lid edema, conjunctival injection) and later severe (multiple symblepharons). The patient was treated with antibiotic eyedrops/ointment, corticosteroid eyedrops/ointment, topical lubricants and a glass rod was used to lyse the symblepharons. At 23 months of follow-up our patient had a symblepharon which blocked the superior and inferior punctum in both eyes, without conjunctival fornix foreshortening or corneal abnormalities, minimal ocular discomfort.
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Age as well as estrogen levels may have an impact on the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine (LTG) and monohydroxycarbazepine (MHD), the active metabolite of oxcarbazepine (OXC). To assess the effects of age and menopause, we evaluated retrospectively a therapeutic drug-monitoring database. Samples from 507 women and 302 men taking LTG and 464 women and 319 men taking OXC were used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model. Data were analyzed using NONMEM software and were compared with a population pharmacokinetic model based on samples of 1705 women and 1771 men taking carbamazepine (CBZ). Age was a significant factor contributing to pharmacokinetic variability in individuals using LTG, OXC, and CBZ with increasing clearance as a function of bioavailability (Cl/F) over age 18, a maximum Cl/F at 33years (CBZ) and 36 years (LTG and OXC), and a gradual decrease of Cl/F towards older age. We found no effect of perimenopausal age range on LTG and MHD clearance.
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Eighty-two patients undergoing LTG monotherapy were reported seizure free as defined above. In 34 the TT could not be calculated because they became seizure free on the first chosen dose. TTs of the remaining 48 patients ranged from 4.0 to 42.0 micromol/l. There were no differences between children and adults, and between generalized and localization-related epilepsies. The therapeutic levels of patients with undefined TT tended to be lower. The level-dose ratio in both groups varied only moderately indicating absence of major exogenous influences.
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On the basis of six years of clinical experience with lamotrigine in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, supplemented by three case reports and a comprehensive literature review of empirical studies, we discuss the possible indications for lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.
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Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug, is cleared from the systemic circulation mainly by glucuronidation. The possibility of changes in the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine in plasma owing to hepatic dysfunction has been evaluated.
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Fourteen treatment studies that included patients with bipolar disorder with either a syndrome-defined anxiety disorder or nonspecific anxiety were selected.
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Data from cross-sectional and prospective studies revealed that patients with epilepsy and on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk for metabolic bone diseases. Bone diseases were reported in about 50% of patients on AEDs. Low bone mineral density, osteopenia/osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, altered concentration of bone turnover markers and fractures were reported with phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine. The mechanisms for AEDs-induced bone diseases are heterogeneous and include hypovitaminosis D, hypocalcemia and direct acceleration of bone loss and/or reduction of bone formation. This article reviews the evidence, predictors and mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone abnormalities and its clinical implications. For patients on AEDs, regular monitoring of bone health is recommended. Prophylactic administration of calcium and vitamin D is recommended for all patients. Treatment doses of calcium and vitamin D and even anti-resorptive drug therapy are reserved for patients at high risk of pathological fracture.
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Two similar formulations (A and B) and one reference (C) were tested in nine epileptic refractory patients. The study was divided into three periods of 42 days, one for each formulation, and medical data about the frequency of seizures, the occurrence of side effects and measurement of plasma concentrations of lamotrigine were collected.