lasix 80 mg bid
1. Charge movement was studied in highly stretched frog cut twitch fibres in a double Vaseline-gap voltage-clamp chamber, with the internal solution containing either 0.1 mM EGTA or 20 mM EGTA plus 1. 8 mM total Ca2+. 2. Fibres were stimulated with TEST pulses lasting 100-400 ms. Replacement of the external Cl- with an 'impermeant' anion, such as SO42-, CH3SO3-, gluconate or glutamate, greatly reduced the calcium-dependent Cl- current in the ON segment and generated a slowly decaying inward OFF current in charge movement traces. 3. Application of 20 mM EGTA to the internal solution abolished the slow inward OFF current, implying that the activation of the current depended on the presence of Ca2+ in the myoplasm. The possibility that the slow inward OFF current was carried by cations flowing inwards or anions flowing outwards was studied and determined to be unlikely. 4. During a long (2000 ms) TEST pulse, a slowly decaying ON current was also observed. When the slow ON and OFF currents were included as parts of the total charge movement, ON-OFF charge equality was preserved. This slow capacitive current is named Idelta. 5. When Cl- was the major anion in the external solution, the OFF Idelta was mostly cancelled by a slow outward current carried by the inflow of Cl-. 6. The OFF Idelta component showed a rising phase. The average values of the rising time constants in CH3SO3- and SO42- were similar and about half of that in gluconate. 7. The OFF Idelta component in CH3SO3- had a larger magnitude and longer time course than that in SO42-. The maximum amount of Qdelta in CH3SO3- was about three times as much as that in SO42-, whereas the voltage dependence of Qdelta was similar in the two solutions. 8. Since the existence of Qdelta depends on the presence of Ca2+ in the myoplasm, it is speculated that Qdelta could be a function of intracellular calcium release.
lasix 20 mg iv
(Na + K + Cl) cotransport is the major mechanism of salt transport across the apical membrane of the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of mammalian kidney and the site of action of "loop" diuretics such as furosemide and bumetanide. We have identified a 150-kDa protein in membranes from dog kidney cortex that is photolabeled by a radiolabeled, benzophenone analogue of bumetanide, [3H]4-benzoyl-5-sulfamoyl-3-(3-thenyloxy)benzoic acid ([3H]BSTBA). Several pieces of evidence strongly suggest that this 150-kDa protein is at least part of the (Na + K + Cl) cotransport system. 1) Photoincorporation of [3H]BSTBA into this protein is completely blocked by inclusion of 10 microM unlabeled bumetanide in the photolysis medium. 2) Photoincorporation of [3H]BSTBA into this protein shows a saturable dependence on [3H]BSTBA concentration, with a K 1/2 (approximately 0.1 microM) very similar to that for reversible [3H]BSTBA binding to kidney membranes. 3) Photolabeling of this protein by [3H]BSTBA requires the simultaneous presence of Na, K, and Cl in the photolysis medium. 4) When crude membranes from dog kidney cortex are centrifuged on sucrose density gradients, saturable [3H]bumetanide binding and photoincorporation of [3H]BSTBA in the 150-kDa region show a very similar distribution among the 15 gradient fractions collected. [3H]BSTBA is also photoincorporated into at least two lower molecular mass proteins, the largest of which is approximately 50 kDa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To assess the knowledge of medical students, if a substance or product is a drug.
lasix 40 mg side effects
To compare the direct healthcare costs of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) prescribed torasemide (torsemide) or furosemide (frusemide).
buy lasix 40 mg
A group of 18 healthy male subjects (25-45 y.o.) participated in the studies of +8.3 Gx tolerance (profile of ballistic reentry) and +Gz tolerance (up to physiological limit) before and after pharmacological hypohydration of organism. Moderate hypohydration was carried out by one 40 mg Furosemid (Lasix) dose, or by pharmacological complex: Furosemid (40 mg) + Hypothiazide (25 mg) + Triamteren (50 mg). Subjects removed with urine about 2 l of water, that was accompanied by increase excretion of electrolytes and caused reduction of the body mass by 2.0 +/- 0.2% and diminution of the plasma volume by 13.5% +/- 2.0%. Pharmacological hypohydration does not lead to a substantial loss in +Gx tolerance. No pathological signs, limiting +Gx tolerance up to 8.3 g were found. The longitudinal +Gz tolerance was less, than +Gx one. The limit of achieved +Gz loads after diuretics reduced by 0.6 g. The scientific and applied significance of this research is that diuretics can be safety used in pre-launch period to prevent the negative effects associated with initial phase of space flight. Besides the preliminary intake of diuretics promotes to diminish of discomfort of cosmonauts, reducing urination in a period of prelaunch waiting in spacecraft.
80 mg lasix im
Brain oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to be involved in the inhibition of sodium appetite in the rat. Sodium depleted male rats showed no decrease in sodium intake after they were given a pulse intracerebroventricular (pICV) injection of either OT (1 microgram/microliter) or the selective OT agonist Tyr4-Gly7OT (1 microgram/microliter). Administration of the OT selective antagonists, d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)-[Orn8]vasotocin and Compound VI [d(CH2)5,Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2(9)]OVT (1 microgram/microliter), did not further increase their sodium intake. On the other hand, sodium appetite of sodium depleted female rats were inhibited by the same dose of pICV OT but not by the selective agonist Tyr4-Gly7 OT (1 microgram/microliter). The reduction od sodium appetite in female rats may have been in part due to the competitive behavior of grooming that followed the OT injection. Nevertheless, the OT inhibition in females of the need-free sodium intake and of the sodium appetite that occurs after furosemide but not in adrenalectomized or DOCA treated rats, argue for a mechanism independent from angiotensin or aldosterone alone related sodium appetite and the mechanism involved in the suppression of these salt intakes remain to be clarified.
lasix 80 mg side effects
A genetic segregation analysis was performed to identify genes that cosegregate with arterial blood pressure traits reflective of salt sensitivity. A population of 113 F2 male rats was derived from an intercross of inbred SS/JrHsd/Mcw (Dahl salt-sensitive) and BN/SsN/Mcw (Brown Norway) rats. Rats were maintained on an 8% salt diet from the age of 9 to 13 wk, and arterial pressure was measured for 3 h daily during the 4th wk of high salt intake in unanesthetized rats using implanted arterial catheters. At the end of the 3rd day of high-salt pressure recordings, the arterial pressure response to salt depletion was determined 1.5 days following treatment with Lasix and a low-sodium (0. 4%) diet. A genome-wide scan using 265 polymorphic simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers found that seven arterial pressure phenotypes determined at different times and circumstances, and representing two distinct indexes of salt sensitivity, mapped to the same region of rat chromosome 18. The trait of salt sensitivity was strongly influenced by the presence of SS alleles in this region of chromosome 18, and those rats which were homozygote SS/SS exhibited a significantly greater reduction of mean arterial pressure following sodium depletion (29 +/- 2 mmHg) than homozygote BN/BN (17 +/- 3 mmHg) or heterozygotic (22 +/- 2 mmHg) rats. This region of rat chromosome 18 corresponds to the long arm of human chromosome 5 and a region of human chromosome 18 that has been linked to hypertension in humans. Given the unlikely chance of these different blood pressure traits mapping to the same region, we believe these data provide evidence that this region of rat chromosome 18 plays an important role in salt-induced hypertension.
lasix 80 mg twice daily
Nineteen euthyroid dogs of 12 breeds with echocardiographic signs of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and radiographic and clinical signs of congestive heart failure (CHF) were evaluated in a randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. The dogs received either thyroxine or placebo as an adjunct to digoxin, furosemide and propranolol. The group assignment of individual dogs and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones remained unknown to owners and investigators during the entire study period. Dogs were evaluated clinically and with electrocardiography (ECG), thoracic radiography, echocardiography and measurement of total thyroxine (tT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) before beginning of the trial, and then one week, 2 months, 6 months and yearly after initial examination, and, when applicable, at the time of euthanasia. End-point of the study was euthanasia (n = 17) due to severe congestive heart failure or sudden death (n = 2). Survival times ranged from 17 to 1030 days (median 187 days) in the placebo group, and from 18 to 1000 days (median 73 days) in the treatment group. There was no statistically significant difference in survival times between the treatment group and the placebo group (p = 0.46). Post mortem and histopathologic examinations revealed the attenuated wavy fiber type of DCM in 11 dogs, and myocardial infarcts, arteriosclerosis and chronic valvular disease in one dog. In conclusion, there was a wide range in survival times of dogs treated with digoxin, furosemide and propranolol. Adding thyroid hormones to the treatment did not significantly influence survival.
lasix generic name
In the majority of cases, children presented with headache. Four patients had no obvious symptoms and papilledema was found on routine eye examination. Obesity was uncommon and there was no distinct sex predilection. Acetazolamide was our drug of choice for the initial treatment. Furosemide and prednisone were used as second-line agents. Treatment was gradually decreased after resolution of the papilledema with exception of the two youngest children, who remained symptomatic. One child underwent ventricular-peritoneal shunting.
lasix 40 mg iv
Abnormal plasma sodium concentration results from abnormal water intake or water output. Treatment is guided by determining the pathogenetic mechanism.
We used the standard search method of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We used the following keywords: [ or ] and , limited to and limited to or . We searched Medline (1966-1998), Embase (1974-1998) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) from the Cochrane Library (1998, Issue 4). In addition, we hand searched several abstract books of national and international American and European Societies. The search of MEDLINE was updated in January, 2001.
lasix generic picture
Recent studies demonstrated that the influence of the macula densa on glomerular filtration is abolished in adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)AR) knockout mice. Inasmuch as the macula densa not only regulates glomerular filtration but also controls the activity of the renin system, the present study aimed to determine the role of the A(1)AR in macula densa control of renin synthesis and secretion. Although a high-salt diet over 1 wk suppressed renin mRNA expression and renal renin content to similar degrees in A(1)AR(+/+), A(1)AR(+/-), and A(1)AR(-/-) mice, stimulation of Ren-1 mRNA expression and renal renin content by salt restriction was markedly enhanced in A(1)AR(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. Pharmacological blockade of macula densa salt transport with loop diuretics stimulated renin expression in vivo (treatment with furosemide at 1.2 mg/day for 6 days) and renin secretion in isolated perfused mouse kidneys (treatment with 100 microM bumetanide) in all three genotypes to the same extent. Taken together, our data are consistent with the concept of a tonic inhibitory role of the A(1)AR in the renin system, whereas they indicate that the A(1)AR is not indispensable in macula densa control of the renin system.
lasix 200 mg
Blood pressure and sodium excretion were similar, whereas African Americans were more obese and had higher iothalamate GFRs. Renal cortical volumes did not differ, but medullary volumes adjusted for body size and age were higher in African Americans (32.3 ± 11.2 vs 25.1 ± 7.4 cm(3)/m(2) body surface area; P < 0.001). Sodium reabsorption and blood flows were higher in African Americans. Basal cortical deoxyhemoglobin values were similar between ethnic groups, whereas medullary R2* was higher in African Americans (39.7 ± 5.1 vs 36.3 ± 6.5/s; P = 0.02), but decreased to levels similar to whites after furosemide treatment. Levels of the circulating isoprostane prostaglandin F(2α) were higher in African Americans and daily urinary prostaglandin F(2α) excretion in African Americans correlated directly with renal blood flow (R = 0.71; P < 0.01).
Pressor responses to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of clonidine were investigated in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Clonidine (1-10 micrograms, i.c.v.) caused a dose-dependent pressor response and decrease in heart rate in both SHR and WKY. In SHR, low doses (1, 2.5 micrograms) but not high doses (5, 10 micrograms) of i.c.v.-clonidine induced a depressor response following the pressor response. Both pressor and depressor responses to i.c.v.-clonidine were significantly greater in SHR than in WKY. In both SHR and WKY, pressor responses to i.c.v.-clonidine were abolished by pentobarbital anesthesia, pretreatment with i.v.-furosemide (5 mg/kg), 24-hr water deprivation and pretreatment with i.c.v.-yohimbine (100 micrograms), but not by pretreatment with i.v.-yohimbine (100 micrograms) and i.c.v.-prazosin (10 micrograms). On the 1st day after surgery for arterial catheter implantation, SHR reduced their water intake, and i.c.v.-clonidine (5 micrograms) caused a slight pressor response, whereas the same dose of clonidine on the 7th day after surgery resulted in a marked pressor response. These results suggest that clonidine caused a central alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated pressor response, which is greater in SHR than in WKY and is sensitive to body fluid volume changes and anesthesia.
lasix 20 mg image
hANP can satisfactorily compensate for the shortcomings of CPB by decreasing the peripheral vascular resistance, suppressing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and exerting a strong diuretic effect.