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ML and HL showed similar activity against both MSSA and MRSA with MIC/MBC at 16 ~ 64 mg/L, with potency similar to amikacin (AMK) and gentamicin (GEN). When they were used in combination with conventional antibacterial agents, they showed bacteriostatic synergy with FICIs between 0.25 ~ 0.5, leading to the combined MICs decreasing to as low as 1 ~ 2 and 1 ~ 16 mg/L for ML (HL) and the agents, respectively. MIC50 of the combinations decreased from 16 mg/L to 1 ~ 4 mg/L for ML (HL) and 8 ~ 128 mg/L to 2 ~ 64 mg/L for the antibacterial agents, which exhibited a broad spectrum of synergistic action with aminoglycosides (AMK, etilmicin (ETM) and GEN), floroquinolones (levofloxacin (LEV), ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), fosfomycin (FOS) and piperacillin. The times of dilution (TOD, the extent of decreasing in MIC value) were determined up to 16 for the combined MIC. A more significant synergy after combining was determined as ML (HL) with AMK, ETM, GEN and FOS. ML (HL) combined with antibacterial agents did not show antagonistic effects on any of the ten MRSA strains. Reversal effects of MRSA resistance to AMK and GEN by ML and HL were also observed, respectively. All the combinations also showed better dynamic bactericidal activity against MRSA than any of single ML (HL) or the agents at 24 h incubation. The more significant synergy of combinations were determined as HL (ML) + ETM, HL + LEV and HL + AMK (GEN or FOS), with △LC24 of 2.02 ~ 2.25.
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Appropriate antibiotic treatment reduces the duration of symptoms associated to pneumonia, the risk of complications and mortality. In most cases, it is not possible to identify the etiologic agent so antibiotic treatment is empirically prescribed. In Chile, one third of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain isolates has diminished susceptibility to penicillin; in-vitro erythromycin resistance is about 10-15% and cefotaxime resistance 2-10%. It is recommended to classify patients with community acquired pneumonia in four risk categories: Group 1: patients under 65 years without co-morbidities, in ambulatory attendance.
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A retrospective cohort study of patients with pharmacy benefits who had ≥1 claim for an oral antimicrobial between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2008 was conducted, utilizing a pharmacy benefits database. Demographic data including age, gender, chronic disease score (CDS) and geographic location were determined. Warfarin users were defined as any patient with ≥1 claim for warfarin during the follow-up period. Antimicrobials considered high risk for potential interaction with warfarin based on existing literature included trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and fluconazole. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the impact of warfarin use and other factors on high-risk antimicrobial prescription.
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A four-year prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence and rate of development of resistance by common urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens to quinolone antimicrobial agents. Results show that there is high intrinsic resistance to the quinolones among strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (43.4%), Escherichia coli (26.3%), and Proteus spp. (17.1%). Over four years, rising rates of resistance were observed in P. aeruginosa (14.6% increase), Staphylococcus aureus (9.8%), and E. coli (9.7%). The highest potency was exhibited by ciprofloxacin (91.2%), levofloxacin (89.2%), and moxifloxacin (85.1%), while there were high rates of resistance to nalidixic acid (51.7%) and pefloxacin (29.0%). Coliforms, particularly E. coli (>45%), remain the most prevalent causative agents of UTI while females within the age range of 20-50 years were most vulnerable to UTI.
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We are reporting the first case of spontaneous endocarditis caused by rapid grower non-tuberculous Mycobacterium chelonae in a case of rheumatic heart disease. The diagnosis was confirmed as there was repeated isolation of rapidly growing atypical Mycobacterium from blood culture which was identified as M. chelonae by Reverse line probe assay. The patient presented with pyrexia of unknown origin. Later she was found to have rheumatic heart disease with severe aortic regurgitation & large vegetation was seen attached to the aortic valve. She was treated with rifampicin, clarithromycin, amikacin & levofloxacin based on culture & sensitivity. She succumbed to her illness after development of large cerebral infarction due to embolization of vegetation from aortic valve.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important hospital pathogens in Canada and worldwide.
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A total of 72 outpatients with symptoms/signs of urinary tract infection and underlying anatomic or functional abnormality of the urinary tract was enrolled to receive levofloxacin 250 mg orally once daily for 10 days. Return visits were scheduled at 3-5 days (early follow-up visit) and 4-6 weeks after completion of therapy (long-term follow-up). At each visit symptoms and signs were assessed, possible adverse events were recorded and a urine specimen was obtained for culture.
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Previous studies regarding the prognosis of patients infected with MRSA isolates characterized by a high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin have generally used a commercial Etest. Little research has been conducted on determining the vancomycin susceptibility of MRSA using a reference microdilution. Additionally, there is discordance between the MIC result from an Etest and the value determined using the reference microdilution method.
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that still causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Elderly people are frequently affected, and several issues related to care of this condition in the elderly have to be considered. This article reviews current recommendations of guidelines with a special focus on aspects of the care of elderly patients with CAP. The most common pathogen in CAP is still Streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by other pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Legionella species. Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem, especially with regard to macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. With regard to β-lactam antibacterials, resistance by H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis is important, as is the emergence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main management decisions should be guided by the severity of disease, which can be assessed by validated clinical risk scores such as CURB-65, a tool for measuring the severity of pneumonia based on assessment of confusion, serum urea, respiratory rate and blood pressure in patients aged ≥65 years. For the treatment of low-risk pneumonia, an aminopenicillin such as amoxicillin with or without a β-lactamase inhibitor is frequently recommended. Monotherapy with macrolides is also possible, although macrolide resistance is of concern. When predisposing factors for special pathogens are present, a β-lactam antibacterial combined with a β-lactamase inhibitor, or the combination of a β-lactam antibacterial, a β-lactamase inhibitor and a macrolide, may be warranted. If possible, patients who have undergone previous antibacterial therapy should receive drug classes not previously used. For hospitalized patients with non-severe pneumonia, a common recommendation is empirical antibacterial therapy with an aminopenicillin in combination with a β-lactamase inhibitor, or with fluoroquinolone monotherapy. With proven Legionella pneumonia, a combination of β-lactams with a fluoroquinolone or a macrolide is beneficial. In severe pneumonia, ureidopenicillins with β-lactamase inhibitors, broad-spectrum cephalosporins, macrolides and fluoroquinolones are used. A combination of a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibacterial (e.g. cefotaxime or ceftriaxone), piperacillin/tazobactam and a macrolide is mostly recommended. In patients with a predisposition for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a combination of piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem or meropenem and levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin is frequently used. Treatment duration of more than 7 days is not generally recommended, except for proven infections with P. aeruginosa, for which 15 days of treatment appears to be appropriate. Further care issues in all hospitalized patients are timely administration of antibacterials, oxygen supply in case of hypoxaemia, and fluid management and dose adjustments according to kidney function. The management of elderly patients with CAP is a challenge. Shifts in antimicrobial resistance and the availability of new antibacterials will change future clinical practice. Studies investigating new methods to detect pathogens, determine the optimal antimicrobial regimen and clarify the duration of treatment may assist in further optimizing the management of elderly patients with CAP.
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MIC- and mutant prevention concentration (MPC)-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices were compared for suitability as attainment targets for restricting amplification of levofloxacin-resistant mutant subpopulations. When three Staphylococcus aureus strains were examined with a hollow-fiber PK/PD model, area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h (AUC24)/MPC values of >25 and maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MPC values of >2.2 predicted resistance outcome among different isolates with an interisolate kappa coefficient of 1. MIC-based mutant-restrictive PK/PD values varied >8-fold and exhibited only a moderate interisolate agreement (kappa coefficient of 0.5). Thus, MPC-based PK/PD indices are more suitable than MIC-based indices for predicting mutant-restricting fluoroquinolone doses when multiple bacterial isolates are considered.
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Vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolates varied from 45.5% (New England) to 85.3% (East South Central). The lowest concentrations at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90) were for tigecycline (0.06-0.12 microg/mL) and for linezolid (2-4 microg/mL). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) varied from 27.4% (New England) to 62.4% (East South Central). All MRSA were susceptible to tigecycline, linezolid, and vancomycin. Penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae ranged from 23.3% in the Pacific region to 54.5% in the East South Central region. Tigecycline, imipenem, levofloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin all maintained MIC90 of < or =1 microg/mL against penicillin-nonsusceptible S pneumoniae in vitro, irrespective of region.
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The causal agent of the disease was finally proved to be one species of bacteria that was identified as Shewanella putrefaciens. Experimental infection with S. putrefaciens resulted in the same gross signs as naturally infected fish and the same bacteria were recovered in a pure culture from freshly dead fish. The LD50 of S. putrefacien was calculated as 2.1 x 10(3) cfu/g. The result of drug sensitivity test showed that S. putrefaciens was sensitive to Pipemidic acid, Nalidixic acid, Fluperacid, Enoxacin, Florfenicol, Rifampicin, Minocycline, Fleroxacin, Enrofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefalexin, Ceftazidine, Roxithromycin and Levofloxacin.