We have recently reported that pre-treatment, but not the post-treatment with atorvastatin showed survival benefit and improved hemodynamic functions in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in mice. Here we examined whether combined treatment with atorvastatin and imipenem after onset of sepsis can prolong survival and improve vascular functions. At 6 and 18h after sepsis induction, treatment with atorvastatin plus imipenem, atorvastatin or imipenem alone or placebo was initiated. Ex vivo experiments were done on mouse aorta to examine the vascular reactivity to nor-adrenaline and acetylcholine and mRNA expressions of α1D AR, GRK2 and eNOS. Atorvastatin plus imipenem extended the survival time to 56.00±4.62h from 20.00±1.66h observed in CLP mice. The survival time with atorvastatin or imipenem alone was 20.50±1.89h and 27.00±4.09h, respectively. The combined treatment reversed the hyporeactivity to nor-adrenaline through preservation of α1D AR mRNA/protein expression and reversal of α1D AR desensitization mediated by GRK2/Gβγ pathway. The treatment also restored endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh through restoration of aortic eNOS mRNA expression and NO availability. In conclusion, combined treatment with atorvastatin and imipenem exhibited survival benefit and improved vascular functions in septic mice.
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Pretreatment with atorvastatin significantly reduced the occurrence of postoperative AF after off-pump CABG.
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Myopathy is the most commonly reported adverse effect of statins. All statins are associated with myopathy, though with different rates. Rosuvastatin is a potent statin reported to induce myopathy comparable to earlier statins. However, in clinical practice most patients could tolerate rosuvastatin over other statins. This study aimed to evaluate the myopathic pattern of rosuvastatin in rats using biochemical, functional and histopathological examinations. The possible deleterious effects of rosuvastatin on muscle mitochondria were also examined. The obtained results were compared to myopathy induced by atorvastatin in equimolar dose. Results showed that rosuvastatin induced a rise in CK, a slight increase in myoglobin level together with mild muscle necrosis. Motor activity, assessed by rotarod, showed that rosuvastatin decreased rats' performance. All these manifestations were obviously mild compared to the prominent effects of atorvastatin. Parallel results were obtained in mitochondrial dysfunction parameters. Rosuvastatin only induced a slight increase in LDH and a minor decrease in ATP (∼14%) and pAkt (∼12%). On the other hand, atorvastatin induced an increase in LDH, lactate/pyruvate ratio and a pronounced decline in ATP (∼80%) and pAkt (∼65%). These findings showed that rosuvastatin was associated with mild myotoxic effects in rats, especially when compared to atorvastatin.
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The attempts to develop new treatments for acute ischemic stroke have been fraught with costly and spectacularly disappointing failures. Repurposing of safe, older drugs provides a lower risk alternative. Vascular protection is a novel strategy for improving stroke outcome. Promising targets for vascular protection after stroke have been identified, and several of these targets can be approached with "repurposed" old drugs, including statins, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and minocycline. We tested the vascular protection (ability to reduce hemorrhagic transformation) of three marketed drugs (candesartan, minocycline, and atorvastatin) in the experimental stroke model using three different rat strains [Wistar, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats]. All agents decreased the infarct size, improved the neurological outcome and decreased bleeding. Mechanisms identified include inhibition of MMP-9, activation of Akt, and increased expression of proangiogenic growth factors. Premorbid vascular damage (presence of either diabetes or hypertension) increased the likelihood of vascular injury after ischemia and reperfusion and improved the response to vascular protection.
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Atorvastatin 10 mg/day increases HDL-C more in patients with low pretreatment HDL-C levels, an effect that seems to be related to the hypotriglyceridemic activity of the drug.
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We investigated the effect of atorvastatin on cyclooxygenase (COX) contribution to endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) mesenteric resistance arteries. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg per day, oral gavage) or its vehicle was administered for 2 weeks to male SHR or Wistar-Kyoto rats. Endothelial function of mesenteric arteries was assessed by pressurized myograph. In Wistar-Kyoto rats, relaxation to acetylcholine was inhibited by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and unaffected by SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor), DuP-697 (COX-2 inhibitor), or ascorbic acid. In SHRs, the response to acetylcholine was attenuated, less sensitive to N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, unaffected by SC-560, and enhanced by DuP-697 or SQ-29548 (thromboxane-prostanoid receptor antagonist) to a similar extent. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was normalized by ascorbic acid or apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), which also restored the inhibition by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. In atorvastatin-treated SHRs, relaxation to acetylcholine was normalized, fully sensitive to N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and not affected by SC-560, DuP-697, SQ 29548, or antioxidants. Dihydroethidium assay showed an increased intravascular superoxide generation in SHRs, which was abrogated by atorvastatin. RT-PCR revealed a COX-2 induction in SHR arteries, which was downregulated by atorvastatin. The release of prostacyclin and 8-isoprostane was higher from SHR than Wistar-Kyoto mesenteric vessels. COX-2 inhibition and apocynin decreased 8-isoprostane without affecting prostacyclin levels. Atorvastatin increased phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, pAkt, peNOS(1177), and inducible NO synthase levels in SHR mesenteric vessels and decreased 8-isoprostane release. In conclusion, COX-2-derived 8-isoprostane contributes to endothelial dysfunction in SHR mesenteric arteries. Atorvastatin restores NO availability by increasing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, pAkt, peNOS(1177), and inducible NO synthase levels and by abrogating vascular NADPH oxidase-driven superoxide production, which also results in a downregulation of COX-2-dependent 8-isoprostane generation.
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Glycaemic control deteriorated in patients with diabetes following high-dose statin therapy. Future controlled studies are needed to verify these findings and, if confirmed, determine whether such changes represent a true decline in glycaemic control. Presently, it appears that, based on the overwhelming prospective trial data available, the preventive effect of statin therapy supersedes that of the slight increase in HbA(1c).
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The pharmacokinetic parameters of ATV were determined in Wistar rats after per-oral pre-treatment with CLZ for 7 days in order to assess the interaction potential between ATV and CLZ. In-vitro metabolic inhibition and everted gut sac studies were conducted to elucidate the mechanism of this interaction. Biochemistry analyser was used to estimate lipid profiles in Wistar rats. A validated LC-MS/MS method was employed to simultaneously quantify both ATV and CLZ in rat plasma matrix.
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The mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, MDA and AuAb-oxLDL were decreased while HDL-cholesterol and TAS were increased significantly after lipid-lowering therapy in patients with dyslipidemia. On the other hand, PON activities in serum and HDL were increased significantly. The percentage increase in serum PON activity was associated significantly with the percentage decrease in serum AuAb-oxLDL (r=-0.32, P=0.047) and that of HDL PON activity was associated with the percentage increase in HDL-cholesterol level after atorvastatin therapy (r=0.52, P=0.001). The therapy was more effective in increasing PON activity in patients with HDL levels above 35 mg/dl.
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Four hundred and fifty-nine English and Scottish general practices contributing EHRs to a research database, of which 17 participated in the trials.
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Some recent clinical trials have concluded the following: Patients who need noncardiac surgery and who are at risk of major cardiac events should not undergo revascularization with the aim of achieving a better perioperative outcome. They should have an office evaluation only and be prescribed a beta-blocker, if indicated. Except for unusual, high-risk cases, patients at risk of stroke due to atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis should undergo carotid endarterectomy rather than carotid stenting. Because the technology is still developing, however, carotid stenting may still be appropriate as part of a clinical trial. Although drug-eluting coronary stents reduce the risk of restenosis in the short-term, they pose a small but significant risk of in-stent thrombosis. Clopidogrel (Plavix) should be prescribed for at least a year following drug-eluting stent placement, and perhaps indefinitely. Patients with known coronary heart disease have better outcomes if they receive aggressive statin therapy (eg, atorvastatin [Lipitor] 80 mg/day) to lower their serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to less than 70 mg/dL.
We did a randomised, double-blind clinical trial in 325 patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Patients were given either atorvastatin 80 mg (n=160) or simvastatin 40 mg (n=165) daily, on an intent-to-treat basis. The primary endpoint was the change of carotid intima media thickness (IMT), as measured by quantitative B-mode ultrasound, over 2 years.