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Fetal and neonatal toxic effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been described in animals and humans. Five cases of fetal or neonatal deaths have been reported following maternal use of sartans for hypertension. We report a case of neonatal transient renal failure following telmisartan therapy during pregnancy. This class of antihypertensive drugs should be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
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Amlodipine-based antihypertensive combination regimens achieved satisfactory blood pressure control rate in patients with essential hypertension in this patient cohort.
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Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the proportion of in-treatment visits before the occurrence of an event (<25%->75%) in which BP was reduced to <140/90 or <130/80 mm Hg. After adjustment for demographic and clinical variables, a progressive increase in the proportion of visits in which BP was reduced to <140/90 or <130/80 mm Hg was associated with a progressive reduction in the risk of stroke, new onset of microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria, and return to normoalbuminuria in albuminuric patients. An increased frequency of BP control to either target did not have any consistent effect on the adjusted risk of myocardial infarction and heart failure. The adjusted risk of CV events was reduced by increasing the frequency of BP control to <140/90 mm Hg, but not to <130/80 mm Hg. Similar findings were obtained for the achievement of the BP target in the visit preceding a CV event.
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Blood pressure increases during acute exposure to high altitude in healthy humans. However, little is known on altitude effects in hypertensive subjects or on the treatment efficacy in this condition. Objectives of High Altitude Cardiovascular Research (HIGHCARE)-Andes Lowlanders Study were to investigate the effects of acute high-altitude exposure on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive subjects and to assess antihypertensive treatment efficacy in this setting. One hundred untreated subjects with mild hypertension (screening blood pressure, 144.1±9.8 mm Hg systolic, 92.0±7.5 mm Hg diastolic) were randomized to double-blind placebo or to telmisartan 80 mg+modified release nifedipine 30 mg combination. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed off-treatment, after 6 weeks of treatment at sea level, on treatment during acute exposure to high altitude (3260 m) and immediately after return to sea level. Eighty-nine patients completed the study (age, 56.4±17.6 years; 52 men/37 women; body mass index, 28.2±3.5 kg/m(2)). Twenty-four-hour systolic blood pressure increased at high altitude in both groups (placebo, 11.0±9 mm Hg; P<0.001 and active treatment, 8.1±10.4 mm Hg; P<0.001). Active treatment reduced 24-hour systolic blood pressure both at sea level and at high altitude (147.9±11.1 versus 132.6±12.4 mm Hg for placebo versus treated; P<0.001; 95% confidence interval of the difference 10.9-19.9 mm Hg) and was well tolerated. Similar results were obtained for diastolic, for daytime blood pressure, and for nighttime blood pressure. Treatment was well tolerated in all conditions. Our study demonstrates that (1) 24-hour blood pressure increases significantly during acute high-altitude exposure in hypertensive subjects and (2) treatment with angiotensin receptor blocker-calcium channel blocker combination is effective and safe in this condition.
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A robust and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) assay for the high-throughput quantification of the antihypertensive drug azelnidipine in human plasma was developed and validated following bioanalytical validation guidelines. Azelnidipine and internal standard (IS), telmisartan, were extracted from human plasma by precipitation protein and separated on a C18 column using acetonitrile-methanol-ammonium formate with 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase. Detection was performed on a turbo-spray ionization source (ESI) and mass spectrometric positive multiple reaction monitoring mode (+MRM) using the respective transitions m/z 583.3 → 167.2 for azelnidipine and m/z 515.3 → 497.2 for IS. The method has a wide analytical measuring range from 0.0125 to 25 ng/mL. For the lowest limit of quantitation, low, medium and high quality controls, intra- and interassay precisions (relative standard deviation) were 3.30-7.01% and 1.78-8.09%, respectively. The drug was sufficiently stable under all relevant analytical conditions. The main metabolite of azelnidipine, M-1 (aromatized form), was monitored semiquantitatively using the typical transition m/z 581.3 → 167.2. Finally, the method was successfully applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study in human after a single oral administration of azelnidipine 8 mg. The assay meets criteria for the analysis of samples from large research trials.
Chronic kidney disease was defined as new microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria or glomerular filtration rate decline of more than 5% per year at 5.5 years of follow-up. We assessed diet using the modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). The analyses were adjusted for known risk factors, and competing risk of death was considered.
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There were 20 patients in each group (n=40), with a mean age of 32.65 years in the treatment group. Plasma creatinine did not show any significant change in the different time lapse in which blood samples were taken, but creatinine clearance at the end of surgery (196.415±56.507 vs. 150.1995±75.081; p=0.034), and at 2 h postoperative period (162.105±44.756 vs. 113.235±31.228; p≤0.001) was statistically significant, which supports an increase in renal function in the telmisartan group.
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Induction of diabetes led to a significant increase in retinal production of angiotensin II and AT1R together with ERK activation in the downstream of AT1R. AT1R blockade significantly reversed diabetes-induced electroretinography changes and reduction of synaptophysin protein, but not mRNA, levels in the diabetic retina. In agreement with the AT1R-mediated posttranscriptional downregulation of synaptophysin in vivo, in vitro application of angiotensin II to PC12D neuronal cells caused the UPS-mediated degradation of synaptophysin protein via AT1R, which proved to be induced by ERK activation.
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T, R or T+R had similar beneficial effects on stroke incidence and NO in hypertensive rats, confirming BP reduction as determinant factor in stroke prevention. In contrast, T and T+R provided superior neuroprotection in comparison to R alone in normotensive rats with induced cerebral ischemia.
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AT1R and AT2R expression and cellular localization was demonstrated in MSCs stimulated with VEGF-A and Ang II via quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence, respectively. Differentiation of naïve MSCs in media containing Ang II (2 ng/ml) plus low-dose VEGF-A (2 ng/ml) produced a significantly higher percentage of cells that were positive for expression of EC markers (for example, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, vascular endothelial Cadherin and von Willebrand factor) compared to VEGF-A alone. Ang II alone failed to induce EC marker expression. MSCs differentiated with the combination of Ang II and VEGF-A were capable of forming capillary tubes using an in vitro angiogenesis assay. Induction of EC marker expression was greatly attenuated by co-treatment of Ang II/VEGF-A with the AT2R antagonist PD123319, but not the AT1R antagonist telmisartan.
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To compare the tolerability and safety of telmisartan +/- hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ).
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To examine drug synergism between angiotensin II AT1-receptor blocker and Ca(2+) channel blocker for lowering blood pressure (BP), telmisartan and lercanidipine were orally injected into to telemetered-spontaneous hypertensive rats and BP was monitored. The highest doses of both drugs (7.66 mg/kg of telmisartan and 1.92 mg/kg of lercanidipine) were clinically relevant at 80 and 20 mg human equivalent doses, respectively, and denoted as dose 1. After constructing the dose-response curve using 0 (vehicle-treated control), 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 and 1 doses, all possible combinations of both drugs were tested. Drug synergism in combination therapy of telmisartan with lercanidipine was assessed by calculating the interaction index (γ) as evaluated by γ < 1. We found statistically significant drug synergism in the investigated (telmisartan: lercandipine) combinations of (1/8:1/4), (1/4:1) and (1/8:1). Our results suggest that the combination therapy of telmisartan and lercanidipine at lower doses are effective in lowering BP, and also reduce side effects caused by maximal doses of each drug. Therefore, drug combination of AT1-receptor blocker with Ca(2+) channel blocker is a clinically important tool for the management of hypertension and hypertension-related cardiovascular risks.
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Standardization of the therapeutic inter change process in the hospital setting by the establishment and spreading of standard criteria has been defined as an activity conducent to increased health care quality, and hence improved patient care.
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Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups, including blood pressure, renal function, and proteinuria. Blood pressure control did not differ between groups during follow-up. In the group administered telmisartan, 80 mg once daily, serum creatinine level increased from 1.6 +/- 0.6 to 2.7 +/- 0.9 mg/dL (141 +/- 52 to 239 +/- 80 micromol/L), and estimated creatinine clearance declined from 68 +/- 30 to 50 +/- 34 mL/min (1.13 +/- 0.50 to 0.83 +/- 0.57 mL/s), whereas in those administered 80 mg twice daily, serum creatinine (1.6 +/- 0.7 to 1.6 +/- 0.8 mg/dL [141 +/- 62 to 141 +/- 71 micromol/L]) and estimated creatinine clearance values (67 +/- 38 to 74 +/- 38 mL/min [1.12 +/- 0.63 to 1.23 +/- 0.63 mL/s]) did not change during the study. The decrease in proteinuria was more pronounced (P < 0.01) in patients administered the high dose of telmisartan compared with those treated with the standard dose. Serum potassium levels and lipid profiles did not change significantly in either group.
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Antihypertensive therapy can lower the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Yet, partly because of inadequate dosing, wrong pharmacological choices, and poor patient adherence, hypertension control remains suboptimal in the majority of hypertensive patients. Achieving greater blood pressure control requires a multifaceted approach that raises awareness of hypertension, uses effective therapies, and improves adherence. Particular classes of antihypertensive therapy have beneficial actions beyond blood pressure and studies have evaluated differences in cardiovascular protection among classes. The LIFE and HOPE studies showed between-class differences that may be due to effects other than blood pressure-lowering. In the ONTARGET study, telmisartan and ramipril provided similar cardiovascular protection but adherence was higher with telmisartan, which was better tolerated. This difference in compliance is likely to be important for long-term therapy. The selection of an agent for cardiovascular protection should depend on an appreciation of its composite properties, including any beneficial effects on tolerability and increased patient adherence, as these are likely to be advantageous for the long-term management of hypertension. This review examines the evidence that the effects beyond blood pressure provided by some antihypertensive agents can also lower the risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal events in patients with hypertension.