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Recent studies have shown increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a variety of human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but so far it is unknown whether COX-2 contributes to the malignant growth and whether inhibition of COX-2 function modifies the malignant potential of liver tumors. COX-1 and COX-2 expression was determined in 4 liver tumor cell lines (Hep 3B, HuH-7, Hep G2, Sk-hep1) by Northern hybridization and Western immunoblot. The functional effects of the nonselective inhibitor sulindac sulfide and the COX-2 selective inhibitors SC-58635 and meloxicam were examined by 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT)-assays and BrdU uptake, morphology, and TUNEL analysis of apoptosis. Apoptosis regulating proteins were analyzed by Western immunoblot. COX-1 and COX-2 expression was demonstrable in all tested liver tumor cell lines. Sulindac sulfide (50 to 400 micromol/L), SC-58635 (6,25 to 400 micromol/L), and meloxicam (6.25 to 400 micromol/L) led to a significant time- and dose-dependent reduction of cell numbers of up to 80% (P <.05). At equimolar concentrations the effect was more pronounced when COX-2 was selectively blocked. COX-2 inhibition induced apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. Apoptosis after COX-2 inhibition with SC-58635 (50 micromol/L) was independent of BCL-2, BAX, and the phosphorylation status of AKT/PKB and BAD, but correlated with activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and caspase-6. In conclusion, selective inhibition of COX-2 leads to a marked growth inhibition of human liver tumor cells, based on the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation and, thus, may offer therapeutic and preventive potential in human hepatocarcinogenesis.
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No significant differences in total pain scores were detected between groups. Mean +/- SD lameness scores assessed at 24 and 72 hours were lower in dogs in the meloxicam group than dogs in the fentanyl group. Lameness scores decreased with time in a similar manner in both treatment groups.
In the absence of evidence of efficacy, at present, for oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified. Because trials clearly demonstrating analgesic efficacy in the most basic of acute pain studies is lacking, use in other indications should be evaluated carefully. Given the large number of available drugs of this and similar classes, there is no urgent research agenda.
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Meloxicam (an oxicam derivative), a relatively new cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, is a member of enolic acid group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is generally used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and other joint pains. Meloxicam is practically insoluble in water (8µg/ml), which directly influences the C(max), T(max), as well as the bioavailability of the drug. In the present study, an attempt has been made to improve the dissolution of Meloxicam by preparation of its solid dispersion using β-cyclodextrin blended with various water soluble polymer carriers i.e., HPMC (methocel IH), methylcellulose (400cps), PVP K30, HPMC (K(4)M), HPMC (50cps). It is reported that when small amount of water soluble polymer is added to β-cyclodextrin, its nature of solubilization significantly increases due to increase in the apparent complex stability constant. Phase solubility studies were carried out to evaluate the solubilizing power of β-cyclodextrin along with various water soluble polymers. The solid dispersion was prepared and formulated into tablets and suspension, which were evaluated on the basis of various official tests. All the studies suggest that formulations of Meloxicam utilizing solid dispersion technique significantly enhances solubility (90 µg/ml) of the drug and results in superior formulations of the drug by using β-cyclodextrin blended with 0.12% w/w HPMC (Methocel IH). Ternary complexation is a valuable tool for solubility enhancement of drugs.
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Positive responses of cats to placebo (P = .0001) and meloxicam treatment (P = .0004) were detected; however, the instrument did not detect any difference between placebo and meloxicam (linear mixed model), even for the high impairment cases. Percent meloxicam target dose administered, temperament, and total baseline FMPI score were covariates that most affected FMPI scores. Controlling for significant covariates, most positive effects were seen for placebo treatment. Positive treatment effects on activity were detected, but only for the cases designated as most highly impaired.
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A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam in human plasma was developed. Piroxicam, meloxicam, tenoxicam and isoxicam (internal standard) were extracted from human plasma with ethyl acetate at acidic pH and analyzed on a Sunfire column with the mobile phase of methanol:ammonium formate (15 mM, pH 3.0) (60:40, v/v). The analytes were detected using a mass spectrometer, equipped with electrospray ion source. The instrument was set in the multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The standard curve was linear (r=1.000) over the concentration range of 0.50-200 ng/ml. The coefficient of variation (CV) and relative error (RE) for intra- and inter-assay statistics at three QC levels were 1.0-5.4% and -5.9 to 2.8%, respectively. The recoveries of piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam ranged from 78.3 to 87.1%, with that of isoxicam being 59.7%. The lower limit of quantification for piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam was 0.50 ng/ml using a 100 microl plasma sample. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of piroxicam after application of transdermal piroxicam patches to humans.
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In this prospective randomized study we tested the hypothesis that use of more cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX 2)-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce perioperative blood loss compared with non-selective NSAIDs.
Overall, the use of NSAIDs is not associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke, although this risk was modestly significantly elevated in diclofenac and meloxicam users.
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Most frequently NSAIDs used in clinical practice, except naproxen, are associated with an increased risk of AMI at high doses or in persons with diagnosed coronary heart disease. For diclofenac and rofecoxib, the risk was increased at low and high doses.
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Meloxicam acts in vivo in dogs as a COX-1 sparing drug on target tissues by sparing gastric PGE2 synthesis while retaining antiprostaglandin effects within inflamed joints.
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Sixty-six client owned horses requiring unilateral partial splint bone resection were recruited in 15 centres in Germany and were allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive meloxicam, 0.6 mg/kg for 5 days. Lameness at trot grades prior to surgery were similar in the meloxicam and placebo treatment groups but were significantly lower in the meloxicam group on day 6 post surgery. Clinical scores for soft tissue swelling and assessment of analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy by the investigators at the end of the study were significantly better for the meloxicam compared to the placebo group. No treatment-related adverse reactions were observed.