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In order to identify potent spermicidal agents which are free from the side effects of currently available agents, spermicidal activity of purified neem seeds extract (Praneem), reetha saponins and quinine hydrochloride was studied individually and in combination. Sander-Cramer test was used to assess the activity on human sperm. Under the test conditions, minimum effective spermicidal concentrations for Praneem, reetha saponins and quinine hydrochloride were 25%, 0.05% and 0.346%, respectively. At these concentrations, 100% of the sperm were immobilised within 20 seconds. A positive synergistic effect in the spermicidal activity of these components, if used in combination, was observed which implies the use of reduced concentrations of each to bring about the desired action. The selected combination formulated into a suitable dosage form is likely to offer dual benefit of a potent contraceptive and an antimicrobial preparation.
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The ancient Indian system of medicine supports the antiatherogenic properties of some herbs. The crosstalk amongst the genes coding for LDLR, LXRalpha, PPARs (alpha,gamma), CD-36 and c-myc may be important in atherogenesis because these genes control lipid metabolism, cytokine production and cellular activity within the arterial wall. Hence, we attempted for the first time to explore whether or not the polyphenols extracted from medicinal herbs had any effect on the transcription of these genes. Normal human mononuclear cells were cultured in the presence of polyphenols (and their HPLC purified sub-fractions) extracted from Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum). Transcriptional expression of these genes was measured by using RT-PCR and SCION IMAGE analysis software. These polyphenolic extracts were found to have the inherent capacity to inhibit the transcriptional expression of genes having direct involvement in atherogenic process. On the basis of these results, we propose for the first time that HPLC purified polyphenolic fraction IV of Tulsi may have a profound antiatherogenic effect.
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Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is one of the richest sources of skeletally diverse triterpenoids and they are well-known for their broad-spectrum pharmacological and insecticidal properties. However, the abundance of Neem triterpenoids varies among the tissues. Here, we delineate quantitative profiling of fifteen major triterpenoids across various tissues including developmental stages of kernel and pericarp, flower, leaf, stem and bark using UPLC-ESI(+)-HRMS based profiling. Transcriptome analysis was used to identify the initial genes involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis. Based on transcriptome analysis, two short-chain prenyltransferases and squalene synthase (AiSQS) were cloned and functionally characterized.
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The aged are prone to biological, social, and psychological problems, especially those residing in the rural areas. The rural aging population in contrast to their urban counterparts is illiterate, poor, and ignorant; cumulative is the fact that the youth are leaving rural areas for money and better opportunity to urban areas. An educational and motivational program to increase prosthodontic awareness was therefore undertaken and it was studied whether this translated into an increased demand for prosthodontic services.
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The use of synthetic pesticides and repellents to target pests of veterinary and medical significance is becoming increasingly problematic. One alternative approach employs the bioactive attributes of plant-derived products (PDPs). These are particularly attractive on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries that should limit development of pest resistance against them.Several pesticides and repellents based on PDPs are already available, and in some cases widely utilised, in modern pest management. Many more have a long history of traditional use in poorer areas of the globe where access to synthetic pesticides is often limited. Preliminary studies support that PDPs could be more widely used to target numerous medical and veterinary pests, with modes of action often specific to invertebrates.Though their current and future potential appears significant, development and deployment of PDPs to target veterinary and medical pests is not without issue. Variable efficacy is widely recognised as a restraint to PDPs for pest control. Identifying and developing natural bioactive PDP components in place of chemically less-stable raw or 'whole' products seems to be the most popular solution to this problem. A limited residual activity, often due to photosensitivity or high volatility, is a further drawback in some cases (though potentially advantageous in others). Nevertheless, encapsulation technologies and other slow-release mechanisms offer strong potential to improve residual activity where needed.The current review provides a summary of existing use and future potential of PDPs against ectoparasites of veterinary and medical significance. Four main types of PDP are considered (pyrethrum, neem, essential oils and plant extracts) for their pesticidal, growth regulating and repellent or deterrent properties. An overview of existing use and research for each is provided, with direction to more extensive reviews given in many sections. Sections to highlight potential issues, modes of action and emerging and future potential are also included.
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Clinical parameters showed statistically improved on the neem chip sites and presence of P. gingivalis strains were significantly reduced on the neem chip sites.
Five databases were searched for articles up to 31 May 2009.
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Recently, neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract (NTE) has been reported to have various antitumor activities against gastric, breast, prostate, and skin cancer, respectively. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of NTE on hepatic cancer in a mouse model. The possible side effects elicited by NTE were also evaluated. The components in NTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). H22 cells-bearing Kumming mice were generated by injecting H22 cells subcutaneously into the right forelimb armpit of the mice. Then the mice were treated daily for 27 days with NTE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric administration, using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 1%) as blank control and cyclophosphamide (CTX, 20 mg/kg) as positive control. The antitumor effect of NTE was evaluated by assessment of survival rate, body weight, tumor volume and weight, tumor histology, thymus and spleen indexes, and liver histology. The tumor weight and volume in groups of NTE and CTX were significantly lower than those in the CMC group. The survival rate in the NTE group receiving the high dose (600 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in the CTX and CMC groups. Compared with CTX, NTE was observed to have a tumor-specific cytotoxicity without impairing the normal liver tissue. Additionally, the higher indexes of thymus and spleen indicated that NTE could facilitate the growth of immune organs. The results indicate that NTE is a promising candidate for the antitumor treatment with high efficacy and safety.
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The isolation and structure elucidation of gedunin , the antimalarial agent of Azadirachta indica, are reported. Its 1H- and 13C-nmr spectra were assigned by using one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy, especially homonuclear and heteronuclear COSY, nOe difference, and COLOC experiments.
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We have shown earlier that Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark aqueous extract has potent antisecretory and antiulcer effects in animal models and has no significant adverse effect (Bandyopadhyay et al., Life Sciences, 71, 2845-2865, 2002). The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Neem bark extract had similar antisecretory and antiulcer effects in human subjects. For this purpose, a group of patients suffering from acid-related problems and gastroduodenal ulcers were orally treated with the aqueous extract of Neem bark. The lyophilised powder of the extract when administered for 10 days at the dose of 30 mg twice daily caused a significant (p < 0.002) decrease (77%) in gastric acid secretion. The volume of gastric secretion and its pepsin activity were also inhibited by 63% and 50%, respectively. Some important blood parameters for organ toxicity such as sugar, urea, creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, albumin, globulin, hemoglobin levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate remained close to the control values. The bark extract when taken at the dose of 30-60 mg twice daily for 10 weeks almost completely healed the duodenal ulcers monitored by barium meal X-ray or by endoscopy. One case of esophageal ulcer (gastroesophageal reflux disease) and one case of gastric ulcer also healed completely when treated at the dose of 30 mg twice daily for 6 weeks. The levels of various blood parameters for organ toxicity after Neem treatment at the doses mentioned above remained more or less close to the normal values suggesting no significant adverse effects. Neem bark extract thus has therapeutic potential for controlling gastric hypersecretion and gastroesophageal and gastroduodenal ulcers.
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The MIC of neem seed extracts was 31 microg/mL for all the dermatophytes tested. The neem seed extract at 15 microg/mL concentration (below MIC) was observed to be sufficient for distorting the growth pattern of the organisms tested.