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Candida dubliniensis is a recently described species of Candida associated with oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Nineteen oral isolates of C. dubliniensis recovered from 10 HIV-positive and 4 HIV-negative individuals and one vaginal isolate from an additional HIV-negative subject were assessed for fluconazole susceptibility by broth microdilution (BMD), hyphal elongation assessment, and Etest. The susceptibilities of these 20 isolates to itraconazole and amphotericin B and of 10 isolates to ketoconazole were also determined by BMD only. Sixteen of the C. dubliniensis isolates were susceptible to fluconazole (MIC range, 0.125 to 1.0 microgram ml-1), and four (recovered from two AIDS patients) were fluconazole resistant (MIC range, 8 to 32 micrograms ml-1). Fluconazole susceptibility data obtained by hyphal elongation assessment correlated well with results obtained by BMD, but the corresponding Etest MIC results were one to four times higher. All of the isolates tested were found to be sensitive to itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B. Sequential exposure of two fluconazole-sensitive (MIC, 0.5 microgram ml-1) C. dubliniensis isolates to increasing concentrations of fluconazole in agar medium resulted in the recovery of derivatives which expressed a stable fluconazole-resistant phenotype (BMD-determined MIC range, 16 to 64 micrograms ml-1), even after a minimum of 10 consecutive subcultures on drug-free medium and following prolonged storage at -70 degrees C. The clonal relationship between the parental isolates and their respective fluconazole-resistant derivatives was confirmed by genomic DNA fingerprinting and karyotype analysis. The results of this study demonstrate that C. dubliniensis is inherently susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs, that fluconazole resistance does occur in clinical isolates, and that stable fluconazole resistance can be readily induced in vitro following exposure to the drug.
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Strains of Trichophyton rubrum I-III, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (usual form), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 73, Epidermophyton Flucosom, Microsporum Canis, and Trichophyton Schoenleini which were isolated from the nails of patients, were hired. Inocula suspensions were prepared from 7 to 14 day-old cultures of dermatophytes. Antifungal agents including fluconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin were obtained as standard powders. For each antifungal agent, initial MIC was calculated by registering the optical density for 10 two-fold serially diluted forms which was incubated with diluted fungal suspensions with RPMI 1640. Human nail powder inoculated with different strains and incubated in RPMI 1640 and different concentrations of antifungal drugs for 4 weeks. Final MIC at different steps of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks were investigated.
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Estramustine, docetaxel, and carboplatin are well tolerated and active in HRPC. Myelosuppression is the primary toxicity. The recommended phase II dose of docetaxel is 43 mg/m2 combined with estramustine and carboplatin. PSA declines were seen at every dose level.
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An oral daily dose of 100 to 200 mg ketoconazole is sufficient to provide a marked inhibition of the formation of the omeprazole sulfone in both extensive and poor metabolizers and leads to a doubling of omeprazole levels in poor metabolizers, whereas 50 mg ketoconazole provides only partial inhibition. We concluded that CYP3A4 catalyzes the sulfoxidation of omeprazole and that this is the predominant metabolic pathway of omeprazole in poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin.
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Little is known about outpatient drug use concomitant with cyclosporine immunosuppressive therapy following renal transplantation. In part, this stems from the difficulty in monitoring drugs not covered by Medicare. Using several linked state and federal program data bases, a cohort of dually eligible Medicare/Medicaid California residents aged > or = 18 years with a first cadaver transplant in 1988 was followed for 3 years to examine drug use and medical expenditures: 99, 122, and 90 patients met these inclusion criteria in each study year, respectively. More than one third of the study population received one or more drugs that inhibit metabolism and increase cyclosporine circulating blood levels (class I) in each year posttransplant. The most commonly prescribed were diltiazem, verapamil, metoclopramide, and ketoconazole. Patients receiving class I drugs had a lower mean cyclosporine dose compared with those not receiving such drugs in all three study years, suggesting that overall cost savings were obtained among patients using class I drugs. Less than one tenth of the study population in any given year received a drug that induces metabolism and decreases cyclosporine blood levels (class II), the most common of which was phenytoin. Use of nephrotoxic drugs (eg, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, and tobramycin) that exhibit nephrotoxic synergy when used with cyclosporine was common. Almost half of all posttransplant patients were prescribed a nephrotoxic drug during the study period. Pharmaceuticals (primarily cyclosporine) accounted for 35% to 43% of the approximately $17,000 to $19,500 per patient annual health care expenditures incurred in the first 3 years following kidney transplantation.
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The in vitro antifungal activity of griseofulvin, ketoconazole, and itraconazole are similar against dermatophytes in Singapore. Griseofulvin may be given as the first-line drug for treating such infections in Singapore.
The in vitro plasma protein binding and distribution in blood of ketanserin ((+/-)-3-[2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1- piperidinyl]ethyl]-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione, R 41 468), a novel serotonin S2-receptor antagonist used in hypertension, was studied in rats, dogs and humans. Plasma protein binding of ketanserin amounted to 95.1% in healthy subjects, 88.1% in dogs and 98.8% in rats. Its blood to plasma concentration ratio was 0.70 in humans, 0.78 in dogs and 0.65 in rats. Plasma protein binding of ketanserin-ol, the main plasma metabolite of ketanserin, was 81.2% in humans and its blood to plasma concentration ratio was 1.04. The plasma protein binding of both ketanserin and ketanserin-ol was highly dependent on pH. Albumin was by far the main binding protein for ketanserin in human plasma and binding was independent of the ketanserin concentration within a very wide range. Plasma protein binding of ketanserin in elderly hypertensive patients was not significantly different from that in healthy adults. In chronic renal failure patients, whether on haemodialysis or not, the free ketanserin fraction was 40% higher than in healthy subjects. High therapeutic levels of ketanserin (0.25 microgram/ml) did not influence the plasma protein binding of diphenylhydantoin, hydrochlorothiazide, imipramine, ketoconazole, propranolol or warfarin. Out of 12 drugs, only tolbutamide at therapeutic concentrations decreased significantly the plasma protein binding of ketanserin. However, the resulting 5-20% increase of the free ketanserin fraction is hardly clinically relevant.
We have evaluated the use of a panel of six fluorogenic cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrates as a potential tool for rapid screening for global changes in CYP activity in rats under different physiological conditions. The biotransformation of 3-[2-(N,N-diethyl-N-methylammonium)ethyl]-7-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin (AMMC), 7-benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin, 7-benzyloxyquinoline, 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin, 7-methoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin, and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin by microsomes from adult male rat liver were characterized, their sensitivities to 15 putative inhibitors were determined and compared to similar experiments using nine different complementary DNA (cDNA)-expressed rat CYPs. Inhibitory profiles of the substrates in microsomes were different from each other, with some overlap, suggesting that each substrate is to some extent biotransformed by a different CYP isoform. Ketoconazole and clotrimazole were nonselective inhibitors, while ticlopidine selectively inhibited biotransformation of AMMC. CYP2A1 did not biotransform any of the substrates, and CYP2E1 was insensitive to all the inhibitors tested. Some inhibitors did not affect the biotransformation of the fluorogenic substrates by cDNA-expressed isoforms as predicted by their effects on conventional substrates, e.g., chlorzoxazone and diethyldithiocarbamate were inactive against CYP2E1, and CYP2C6 was not inhibited by sulfaphenazole. When results in microsomes and cDNA-expressed CYPs were compared, only the majority of the biotransformation of AMMC by microsomes could be assigned with full confidence to a specific CYP isoform, namely CYP2D2. Nevertheless, different inhibitory profiles of the substrates indicate that the panel will be useful for rapid functional quantification of global CYP activity in rats under different experimental conditions. Our results also demonstrate the inappropriateness of extrapolating inhibitory data between conventional and fluorogenic CYP substrates.
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Due to suppression of gastric acidity during antisecretory therapy, an impaired absorption of co-administered drugs may occur.
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Abiraterone acetate is a prodrug of abiraterone, a selective inhibitor of CYP17, the enzyme catalyst for two essential steps in androgen biosynthesis. In castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs), extragonadal androgen sources may sustain tumor growth despite a castrate environment. This phase I dose-escalation study of abiraterone acetate evaluated safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects on steroidogenesis and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men with CPRC with or without prior ketoconazole therapy.