A contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is today treated as an independent primary tumour, although recent data suggest risk and prognosis of CBC to be influenced by characteristics of and treatment given for the first tumour (BC1). We hereby investigate phenotypical and prognostic features of the second tumour (BC2) in relation to prior endocrine treatment and radiotherapy.
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Tamoxifen biotransformation to endoxifen, a potent antiestrogen, is catalyzed by CYP2D6. In addition, CYP2C19 and SULT1A1 have also been implicated in the metabolism of tamoxifen. We sought to evaluate the importance of SULT1A1 copy number and CYP2C19*17 on disease-free survival (DFS) in postmenopausal women randomized to tamoxifen monotherapy in North Central Cancer Treatment Group 89-30-52 from January 1991 to April 1995.
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Randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of radiation and tamoxifen in reducing risk of second events after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but the comparative effectiveness of mastectomy, BCS, and adjuvant treatments have not been established in community practice. We examined disease-free survival (DFS) among 1,676 DCIS cases diagnosed during 1995-2006 in the population-based Wisconsin In Situ Cohort study. Information on patient and tumor characteristics, treatments, and second breast cancer events were collected via a comprehensive review of data from patient interviews, the statewide cancer registry, and pathology reports. Breast cancer DFS was evaluated according to treatment while adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics. After an average of 7.1 years of follow-up, 143 second breast cancer events occurred. Overall 5-year DFS was similar among women treated with ipsilateral mastectomy (95.6 %; 95 % CI 93.5-97.0) compared to women treated with BCS and radiation (94.8 %; 95 % CI 92.8-96.1), though women receiving BCS without radiation experienced poorer overall DFS (87.0 %; 95 % CI 80.6-91.5). Women treated with tamoxifen in addition to BCS and radiation had a similar risk of a second breast event, although the hazard ratio (HR) suggested a potential benefit (0.70, 95% CI 0.41-1.19). Women treated with BCS, radiation, and tamoxifen had comparable risk of a second event as those treated with ipsilateral mastectomy (HR = 1.20; 95 % CI 0.71-2.02). In this population-based sample, the use of BCS with radiation and tamoxifen resulted in high DFS rates comparable to those achieved by ipsilateral mastectomy.
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For none of the five specific cancers, sufficient evidence for an association between introduction of innovations and a positive change in mortality could be found. The highest association was found between the introduction of Tamoxifen and breast cancer mortality.
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To determine the 12-year risk of developing an ipsilateral breast event (IBE) for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast treated with surgical excision (lumpectomy) without radiation.
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Scheffe's F test demonstrated a significant difference in serum ucOC levels between controls and the RLX group (p<0.01), and between controls and the ALN group (p<0.01). Serum ucOC levels were low in both treated groups. An adjusted multivariate analysis was performed for the variables: bone resorption inhibitor use, serum alkaline phosphatase, glucocorticoid dose, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate and matrix metalloproteinase 3. As a result, serum ucOC inversely correlated with bone resorption inhibitor use (p<0.01) and oral glucocorticoid dose (p<0.01), which were independent risk factors of lowering ucOC.
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Tamoxifen is one of many standard therapeutic options currently available for estrogen receptor-alpha-positive breast cancer patients. Emerging data have suggested that levels of estrogen receptor coregulatory proteins play a significant role in acquiring resistance to antiestrogen action. It has been suggested that high levels of estrogen receptor coactivators and its mislocalization may enhance the estrogen agonist activity of tamoxifen and contribute to tamoxifen resistance.
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With long-term follow-up, the DBCG 77B trial demonstrates that oral single-agent cyclophosphamide significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and mortality as compared with no systemic therapy in pre-menopausal patients with high-risk early breast cancer. DBCG 77B is the only randomised trial assessing single-agent cyclophosphamide; and a second comparison suggests that its benefits are comparable to what may be achieved by classic CMF. The lack of benefits from adding methotrexate and fluorouracil to cyclophosphamide paved the way for combining cyclophosphamide with anthracyclines and later taxanes. DBCG 89D showed an incremental benefit in DFS and OS from substituting methotrexate with epirubicin. The advantage of anthracycline-containing three-drug combinations over CMF was confirmed by others and in the individual-patient EBCTCG meta-analysis, while standard AC or EC for four cycles not was superior to classic CMF. A further reduction in breast cancer mortality appeared in the EBCTCG meta-analysis from the addition of a taxane to a standard AC, while the substitution of cycles or drugs with a taxane was not associated with a reduction in mortality. No apparent benefit was observed in an early analysis of the DBCG 82C evaluating the addition of CMF to tamoxifen in post-menopausal high-risk breast cancer patients. Apart from menopausal status, the two trials had identical selection criteria, and the differences in outcome warranted a long-term follow-up of the 82C trial. After ten years of follow-up, CMF in the DBCG 82C was associated with a significant improvement in DFS; but even with 24 years of follow-up, mortality was not significantly improved. The diversity in outcome from the 77C and the 82B trials triggered further studies. The 77B trial used classic CMF with oral cyclophospamide, while a four-weekly intravenous CMF regimen was used in the 82B and C trials, and a three-weekly CMF regimen was used in the succeeding 89B and D trials. The outcome following these CMF regimens has not been compared within the context of a randomised trial. Shifting from the 77B's classic CMF regimen to the 82B four-weekly IV regimen or the 89B three-weekly IV regimen was associated with a 30% increased risk of a DFS event in a multivariate analysis of a population-based cohort study. Furthermore, the four-weekly regimen used in 82B was associated with a 40% increase in mortality. The strengths of the design include identical selection criteria, uniform and prospective registration of treatment, tumour and patient characteristics. Caution is still required due to the non-experimental design of the comparison. Another finding was a substantial difference in the risk of amenorrhoea; and while 15% of patients aged 40 or younger in 77B had regular menses throughout chemotherapy, the corresponding percentage was 37 in 82B and 47 in 89B. The DBCG in collaboration with a Swedish and a Dutch centre participating in the DBCG trial 89B compared CMF with ovarian ablation in premenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients with ER-positive tumours. No significant differences were found in DFS or OS in the preplanned analysis, suggesting that the benefits of CMF may, at least in part, be explained by ovarian suppression in premenopausal patients with ER-positive tumours. However, these results are not clinically useful by themselves as other chemotherapy regimens have been more efficacious, and knowledge is still lacking regarding the benefits from adding ovarian suppression to chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. The results from the DBCG 77B and 82C are in accordance with other large adjuvant trials and the EBCTCG meta-analyses. The benefits obtained with any individual anticancer drug are largely determined by the cancer (somatic) genome; and by being a molecular target of anthracyclines, TOP2A aberrations could obviously be associated with cancer drug benefits. In the DBCG 89D, a significant heterogeneity was observed between a beneficial effect on DFS and OS of epirubicin and the presence of TOP2A, but not the presence of HER2 aberrations. The results obtained in the 89D trial regarding TOP2A have been reproduced by others, but not consistently. However, a recent individual-patient pooled analysis of five adjuvant trials demonstrated that patients with either TOP2A or centromere 17 aberrations, but not with HER2 amplification, benefit from anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. Anthracyclins have additional distinct biological mechanisms; and results from the DBCG 89D suggested that tumours with normal TOP2A were only non-responsive to anthracyclines if they were TIMP1 immunoreactive. The DBCG READ trial (N = 2,015) prospectively included patients without TOP2A-aberrated breast cancers, and its results are awaited for prospective confirmation of the results from the DBCG 89D and the individual-patient pooled analysis. Adjuvant chemotherapy substantially reduces the risk of recurrence and mortality of breast cancer, but is also associated with significant toxicity. However, according to a large cohort study from DBCG, chemotherapy can safely be withheld in one fourth of postmenopausal patients who will be without excess mortality following sufficient adjuvant endocrine therapy for ER positive breast cancer. A prognostic standard mortality rate index (PSI) was constructed using regression coefficients obtained in a multivariate fractional polynomials model, and most accurately identified those who could be spared chemotherapy. In addition to age, tumour size, nodal status, histological type and malignancy grade, the PSI also includes ER level addressed as a continuous variable in the MFP model. In the MFP model, absence of LVI was sufficient to counteract the impact of other risk factors, while that could not be achieved with a categorical multivariate model in a prior study. An evaluation of whether the addition of results from a molecular assay may improve the clinical utility of the PSI is on-going, but when used alone evidence from such assays has been insufficient.
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Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. The majority of breast tumors are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and hormone-dependent. Neoadjuvant anti-estrogen therapy has been widely employed to reduce tumor mass prior to surgery. Tamoxifen is a broadly used anti-estrogen for early and advanced ER+ breast cancers in women and the most common hormone treatment for male breast cancer. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is an active metabolite of tamoxifen that functions as an estrogen receptor antagonist and displays higher affinity for estrogen receptors than that of tamoxifen and its other metabolites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a small noncoding RNA of 23 nucleotides that regulates several apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes and contributes to chemoresistance in numerous cancers, including breast cancer. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 coadministration in an attempt to combat tamoxifen resistance, a common problem often encountered in anti-estrogen therapy. A biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG-COOH) copolymer was utilized as a carrier to codeliver 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 to ER+ breast cancer cells. 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 co-loaded PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) were developed using emulsion-diffusion evaporation (EDE) and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion methods. The EDE method was found to be best method for 4-OHT loading, and the w/o/w method proved to be more effective for coloading NPs with anti-miR-21 and 4-OHT. The optimal NPs, which were prepared using the double emulsion method, were evaluated for their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against MCF7, ZR-75-1, and BT-474 human breast cancer cells as well as against 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that PLGA-b-PEG NP encapsulation significantly extended 4-OHT's stability and biological activity compared to that of free 4-OHT. MTT assays indicated that treatment of MCF7 cells with 4-OHT-anti-miR-21 co-loaded NPs resulted in dose-dependent antiproliferative effects at 24 h, which was significantly higher than what was achieved with free 4-OHT at 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Cell proliferation analysis showed that 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 co-loaded NPs significantly inhibited MCF-7 cell growth compared to that of free 4-OHT (1.9-fold) and untreated cells (5.4-fold) at 1 μM concentration. The growth rate of MCF7 cells treated with control NPs or NPs loaded with anti-miR-21 showed no significant difference from that of untreated cells. These findings demonstrate the utility of the PLGA-b-PEG polymer NPs as an effective nanocarrier for co-delivery of anti-miR-21 and 4-OHT as well as the potential of this drug combination for use in the treatment of ER+ breast cancer.
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In our analysis, 10% of patients discontinued the first AI assigned because of toxicity. Median time course of all adverse events leading to HT discontinuation was 155 days and 135 days for arthralgia. A switch to alternative HT with toxicity monitoring is a recommended option for avoiding premature and permanent interruption of an effective treatment.
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The CLEOPATRA trial reported the survival benefit of pertuzumab with trastuzumab plus docetaxel in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients. However, there are a few case reports concerning the effects of a pertuzumab-containing regimen on brain metastases. A 55-year-old woman, who underwent curative surgery for breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy 5 years previously, developed repeated solitary brain metastasis in her right occipital lobe. Whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and 3 times of surgical resection were performed. Lapatinib and capecitabine plus tamoxifen were administered. The metastasis recurred in the stump of the previous surgery. Pertuzumab with trastuzumab plus docetaxel was initiated as second-line chemotherapy. A complete response of the brain metastasis was achieved, which persisted for 5 months. Pertuzumab with trastuzumab plus docetaxel was effective in reducing the brain metastases from breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to confirm the effect of this regimen on brain metastases.
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We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, the Register of Chinese trials developed by the Chinese Cochrane Centre, and the Chinese Med Database, Chinese Biomedical Disc (CBMDisc 1978 to July 2004); VIP (1989 to October 2005)); China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI 1994 to 2003) in October 2005. We hand searched a number of journals, and searched reference lists, databases of ongoing trials and the Internet.
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Urogenital and sexual symptoms were self-reported during the enrollment interview within the University of North Carolina Cancer Survivorship Cohort. Tumor characteristics and endocrine therapy use were collected from medical and prescription records. We calculated multivariable prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association of endocrine therapy (versus no endocrine therapy) and urinary incontinence, overall and by therapy type (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors). PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction domain scores were compared across endocrine therapy groups.
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To determine if the number of axillary nodes removed is a predictor of recurrence in node negative breast cancer.
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Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis remains a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. Prolonged duration on dialysis and severe episodes of peritonitis are the two most important risk factors for developing the condition. Here we describe a patient who developed a fulminant form of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis soon after suffering from an episode of fungal peritonitis. There was clinical evidence of ongoing inflammation and gross malnutrition. Signs of chronic intestinal stasis were present on radiological imaging. There was concern in this situation that symptoms could partly relate to ongoing peritoneal sepsis, which could be worsened by immunosuppressives such as steroids. Tamoxifen was used without steroids in our patient with prompt resolution of stasis symptoms and withdrawal of artificial nutrition support. To our knowledge tamoxifen has never been previously used alone, in this scenario. We propose that tamoxifen might be a safer alternative to use in this clinical setting where there is concern about presence of ongoing sepsis, than corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents.