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We searched various databases up to October 2015. A network meta-analysis was performed to compare global response assessment (GRA) for different treatment strategies, including botulinum toxin A (BoNTA), bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), resiniferatoxin (RTX), lidocaine, chondroitin sulfate (CS), oxybutynin, and pentosan polysulfate (PPS). A traditional meta-analysis was also performed.
Improvements in hyperhidrosis after oxybutynin treatment were similar in both groups, suggesting that QOL before treatment is not a predictive factor for clinical outcomes, contrasting with surgical results that disclose significantly better results in patients with initially poorer QOL analysis.
To compare the inhibitory effects of propiverine HCl(BUP-4) with those of atropine and oxybutynin on the detrusor instability induced by partial obstruction of the bladder neck of female rats.
In mice, 10 mg kg(-1) ADX71441 increased urinary latencies, reduced the number of urinary events and the total and average urinary volumes. In guinea pigs, ADX71441 (1 and 3 mg kg(-1) ) increased the intercontraction interval (ICI) and bladder capacity (BC), and reduced micturition frequency (MF) compared to vehicle. At 3 mg kg(-1) ADX71441 completely inhibited the micturition reflex and induced overflow incontinence in five out of 10 animals. Baclofen slightly increased ICI and BC and reduced MF.
We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. From June 2013 to January 2014, 62 patients with localized or generalized hyperhidrosis were enrolled. Oxybutynin was started at a dose of 2·5 mg per day and increased gradually to 7·5 mg per day. The primary outcome was defined as improvement of at least one point on the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and tolerance were also reported.
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The MATRIX study consisted of a large population of older adults. In addition to those over the age of 65, this study included 131 patients > or =85 years old. Even though these adults were community-based, many of them had similar medical histories, comorbidities, use of multiple medications and urinary incontinence histories as those residing in long-term care settings. This study found OXY-TDS to be effective in improving quality of life in these older adults. In addition, there was a low incidence of adverse events, particularly anticholinergic events. Overall, this study supports the use of OXY-TDS in older adults-those residing in community and nursing facility settings. The next article in this series will present other results of the MATRIX study, including the changes in nocturia and pad use, as well as the effect of OXY-TDS in participants with prostate problems.
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Oxybutynin (Ditropan), a direct antagonist of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors, is administered in children for the treatment of vesical immaturity and is responsible for atropinic adverse effects, which are more frequent in paediatric than in adult patients. Oxybutynin is metabolized by oxidation to N-desethyloxybutynin, a stable and toxic metabolite, and previous results in vivo have suggested that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) may be involved in this pathway of metabolism. We used human liver microsomes genotyped as extensive metabolizers for CYP2D6 to determine the kinetic parameters of N-desethyloxybutynin formation: Km was 16.5+/-5.2 microM and Vmax was 76.8+/-3.7 mmol/mg/h. Quinidine and anti-liver kidney microsome antibody type I had no inhibitory effects on N-desethyloxybutynin formation, demonstrating that CYP2D6 has no role in oxybutynin metabolism. The effects of specific inhibitors of other cytochromes P450 were also investigated. Recombinant human CYP 3A4 but not 2B6, 2D6, 2C8 and 2E1, displayed significant N-desethylation activity. Our results demonstrate that the CYP3A subfamily, and not CYP2D6, is involved in N-desethyloxybutynin formation.
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Oxybutynin chloride is an antispasmodic, anticholinergic agent indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency. Its electrochemical behavior in phosphate buffers of pH range 2-10 at a hanging mercury drop electrode has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPCAdSV), and squarewave cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWCAdSV). Voltammograms of the drug in phosphate buffer of pH 2-10 exhibited a single two-electron wave and it may be attributed to the reduction of the C[triple bond]C center. Based on the high adsorptive character of oxybutynin chloride onto the mercury electrode, a validated direct squarewave cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetric and differential pulse cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedure has been developed for the determination of drug in bulk form and pharmaceutical formulation. The proposed SWCAdS and DPCAdS voltammetric methods allow quantitation over the range 1-18 and 1-17.6 microg mL(-1) with detection limits of 0.1 and 0.23 microg mL(-1), respectively. Precision and accuracy were also checked and were within the limits.
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Behçet's disease is a multiple disorder in which urogenital involvement mainly consists of genital aphthous ulcers, epididymitis, urethritis and recurrent cystitis. We report 2 cases of neurogenic bladder due to Behçet's disease. Both cases showed detrusor hyperreflexia and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. One case has been managed by twice-daily intravesical oxybutynin treatment (5 mg/10 ml) and clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) 7 times/day, and the other case has been managed by CIC 6 times/day.
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Although many non-hormonal compounds have shown statistically significant benefit over placebo in hot flash randomized controlled trials (RCTs), these studies have varied considerably in basic methodology making it challenging to deduce which compounds have the greatest potential to provide clinically meaningful benefit. This review used evidence-based methodology closely mirroring the FDA and EMEA guidelines as a template to identify "well-designed" RCTs from which effective and clinically meaningful non-hormonal hot flash therapies could be identified. In addition, pertinent safety information was reviewed. Out of 3548 MEDLINE citations and abstracts, 51 well-designed hot flash RCTs were identified. From these trials, gabapentin, oxybutynin ER, desvenlafaxine, soy-derived isoflavones and black cohosh each showed a clinically meaningful treatment effect in at least 1 RCT. Among these 5 compounds, only gabapentin demonstrated consistent and statistically significant benefit over placebo in all of its well-designed RCTs. Desvenlafaxine, soy-derived isoflavones, and black cohosh demonstrated statistically significant benefit over placebo in 75%, 21%, and 17% of the well-designed RCTs for each compound, respectively. There was only 1 well-designed RCT using oxybutynin ER, which showed it to have a robust and clinically meaningful benefit. In terms of safety, there have been cardiovascular risks associated with desvenlafaxine use in postmenopausal women with hot flashes. The use of anticonvulsants, in general, has been associated with an absolute 0.21% increase in suicidal thoughts and behavior. Further research is needed with several of these nonhormonal compounds to replicate these findings and to also directly compare their efficacy and tolerability with those of hormone replacement therapy.
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Hyperhidrosis, or abnormally increased sweating, is a condition that may have a primary or secondary cause. Usually medication- induced secondary hyperhidrosis manifests with generalized, rather than focal sweating. We report a 32-year-old woman with a history of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis for 15 years who presented for treatment and was prescribed oral glycopyrrolate. One month later, the palmoplantar hyperhidrosis had resolved, but she developed new persistent craniofacial sweating. After an unsuccessful trial of clonidine, oxybutynin resolved the craniofacial hyperhidrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of compensatory hyperhidrosis secondary to glycopyrrolate reported in the literature. The case highlights the importance of reviewing medication changes that correlate with new onset or changing hyperhidrosis. It also demonstrates a rare drug adverse effect with successful treatment.
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In this study, we optimize pharmacotherapy in children who failed anticholinergic monotherapy by simultaneous administration of 2 anticholinergics (oxybutynin and/or tolterodine and/or solifenacin).
A total of 240 patients enrolled; 111 (46%) were ≥65 years of age. Completion rate was 76.0% (<65) and 62.2% (≥65) (p = 0.0204). Medication was rated as tolerable by 75.2% of patients <65 and 58.6% of patients ≥65 (p = 0.0099). Based on overall satisfaction scores 64.2% (patient scores) and 57.1% (physician scores) of patients were considered 'successfully treated' (p = 0.0001 & p = 0.0451). There was a significant reduction in incontinence (64.3%; p = 0.0001), nocturia (38.6%; p = 0.0001) and night-time incontinence (39.7%; p = 0.0436) with no difference between age groups. Total continence was achieved by 29.8% and 47.5% of patients <65 and ≥65, respectively (p = 0.0077). No patients clinically experienced confusion or delirium and only six patients ≥65 had a decrease in MMSE score of ≥3 units, which was not statistically different from patients <65 (p = 0.3112). Dry mouth was the most common adverse event reported by 24.8% of patients <65 and 36.0% of patients ≥65 (p = 0.0584). Limitations of the study include a fixed dosing, no control group and 4-week trial.