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Parlodel (Bromocriptine)

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Generic Parlodel is the most effective preparation in struggle against female diseases as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Generic Parlodel can also be helpful for patients with Parkinson`s disease and its symptoms caused by low levels of dopamine in the brain. Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level.

Other names for this medication:
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Also known as:  Bromocriptine.


Generic Parlodel is created using perfect medical formula which is a magnificent weapon against women problems such as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Target of Generic Parlodel is to reduce prolactin level and help to produce breast milk and fertility in women.

Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level. When it is used for treatment of Parkinson disease, it works by stimulating dopamine receptors in some certain brain parts.

Parlodel is also known as Bromocriptine, Proctinal.

Generic Parlodel is a hormone (dopamine agonist).

Generic Parlodel can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

Generic name of Generic Parlodel is Bromocriptine.

Brand name of Generic Parlodel is Parlodel.


Generic Parlodel is available in the form of tablets (2.5 mg) which should be taken by mouth with meals or without it.

Take Generic Parlodel every day at the same time and remember that its dosage depends on patient's health state.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Parlodel suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Parlodel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are allergic to Generic Parlodel components.

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Generic Parlodel in case of having uncontrolled high blood pressure, blood poisoning, having recently given birth or have coronary artery disease (chest pain) or any other severe heart disease.

In case you take Generic Parlodel while using birth control pills, remember that birth control pills become less effective

Patients under 15 years should be extremely careful with Generic Parlodel.

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful when you are driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Parlodel taking suddenly.

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Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis is not only involved in the regulation of somatic growth but also has important physiological functions in adults. Several studies have shown that GH deficiency in adults is associated with abnormalities in body composition, metabolic derangements, and suboptimal physical performance. Furthermore, GH/IGF-I axis plays an important role in the maintenance of heart structure and function. Until recently, GH therapy was only used to treat short stature children, with or without established GH deficiency, and it remains common practice to discontinue GH replacement therapy when final height is achieved. Acromegaly, entity characterized by GH hypersecretion, is associated with an increased risk of premature death. Cardiac complications are known to be major determinants of the shortened life expectancy. Treatment of acromegaly accounts for a substantial decrease in morbidity and mortality. Surgery, radiation therapy and bromocriptine have only been able to reduce GH levels to normal levels in 10-30% of patients. The synthesis of somatostatin analogs has provided a new approach to acromegaly treatment. These drugs reduce GH and IGF-I levels in 80% of cases and normalize them in 40-60% of cases. Finally, GH/IGF-I system improves left ventricular systolic function and has also indirect effects on the cardiovascular system, mainly as a consequence of the peripheral vasodilatation. These effects are important in the understanding of the potential role of GH on improving ventricular systolic dysfunction and point to the use of GH as a potential therapy for chronic heart failure. The aim of the present review is to provide an update overview describing the role of GH on acromegaly, adult GH deficiency and heart failure, as well as the influence of GH-based therapy on heart structure and function.

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Longitudinal study.

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We wanted to evaluate the very long-term effects of bromocriptine on prolactin (PRL) levels and pituitary tumor size in a large cohort of hyperprolactinemic patients.

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In the first patient, brain anoxia was severe, with secondary agitation, quadriparesis, involuntary movements, inattention and communication disorders. Introduction of levodopa/benserazide resulted in reduction of agitation and involuntary movements and improvement of communication, thus facilitating care and rehabilitation efforts. A weaning test resulted in rapid worsening. The four following patients also presented with anoxia of variable severity. Marked improvement was observed in case 2, presenting with agitation, loss of orientation, amnesia, postural disorders, involuntary movements and dysphagia, with a withdrawal test resulting in immediate re-enhancement of symptoms. Modest improvement was observed in patient 3, who had hypokinesia, rigidity, adynamia, impaired attention, and reduced verbal fluency. Patient 4 presented with memory disorders without motor difficulties: mild improvement was observed in daily life and memory tests. In patient 5 who also presented with severe memory disorders, the benefit was absent. In each case, bromocriptine was introduced 3-4 weeks following levodopa, but without additive effect. Both treatments could be interrupted after a few months, without worsening.

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Four studies were included. The method of randomisation was not specified in any of the trials, which were all of crossover design. Compared with placebo, bromocriptine was associated with a significant reduction in serum prolactin levels (weighted mean difference -195.3 micro international units per litre, 95% confidence interval -276.5 to -114). No effects on sperm parameters were seen. There was also no effect on pregnancy rates observed between bromocriptine and placebo (0.70 odds ratio, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 3.24).

is parlodel a fertility drug

Binding of spiperone and 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), both labeled with hydrogen 3 (3H), were measured in caudate tissue obtained from 8 living parkinsonian patients at the time of cerebral transplantation. This was clinically homogeneous group of patients. All remained predominantly responsive to levodopa, although with marked disability secondary to clinical fluctuations (short-duration responses) and medication-induced dyskinesias; all were receiving substantial doses of levodopa and 6 of the 8 patients were additionally receiving bromocriptine or pergolide. Binding densities of dopamine D2 receptors, as measured by [3H]spiperone binding, were reduced in this group of patients, compared to caudate specimens from autopsy control subjects. This findings may reflect medication-induced receptor downregulation. Parallel changes occurred with muscarinic cholinergic receptors; [3H]QNB binding was significantly reduced, compared to autopsy control values. This reduction of muscarinic receptors might be due to loss of nigrostriatal terminals that are known to contain muscarinic receptors. Alternatively, muscarinic receptors may have been downregulated by increased corticostriatal glutamatergic input to cholinergic cells, inferred to be present based on the prominent levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Finally, receptor deficits could have been a reflection of more widespread degenerative cerebral disease, although levodopa-refractory symptoms were generally not pronounced in these patients.

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After completion of this article, the reader will understand the appropriate tests and work up for unexplained infertility, the various treatment options for the unexplained infertility couple including which drugs are effective and not effective, and to be able to outline an appropriate treatment plan for such patients.

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Used worldwide since 1980 for the prevention of breast engorgement in the puerperium, in 1994 bromocriptine mesylate was withdrawn from the American market as an agent suitable for ablactation. The relevant recommendation of the Food and Drug Administration rested on case reports that described severe vasospastic reactions among users of the drug. Some patients so affected suffered stroke, intracranial bleeding, cerebral edema, convulsions, myocardial infarction, and puerperal psychosis. More recently, it has been suggested that the side effects of the drug may also include circulatory collapse secondary to cardiac dysrhythmia. This report describes two additional cases in this category. The antepartum clinical evaluation of these women suggested that they were predisposed to arrhythmias.

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Forty-three women with unexplained infertility and 16 women who ovulated with clomiphene citrate therapy, yet failed to conceive, were evaluated because of the presence of expressible galactorrhea and normal random prolactin levels. The overall mean duration of infertility for these women was 5.68 +/- 0.33 years (mean +/- standard error) and their mean age was 30.20 +/- 0.46 years. Fifty-two of these women had primary infertility. Three treatment protocols were evaluated. Twenty-five women with unexplained infertility (Group A) received low-dose bromocriptine (1.25 to 2.5 mg) at bedtime for the first 18 days of the cycle; 18 women with unexplained infertility (group B) received 100 mg of pyridoxine continuously; and 16 women receiving clomiphene citrate (group C) also received bromocriptine in a manner similar to that for group A. All subjects were followed for six treatment cycles or until pregnancy occurred. The estimated cumulative pregnancy rate after six treatment cycles was 65% for groups A and C, which is significantly higher than the 22% rate for group B (Lee-Desu statistic = 4.66, P = 0.03). Women treated with bromocriptine were 2.3 times more likely to conceive than women treated with pyridoxine. Furthermore, those infertile galactorrheic women whose random prolactin level was greater than or equal to 15 ng/ml were most likely to conceive. Expressible galactorrhea in women with unexplained infertility and high normal prolactin concentrations may serve as a clinical sign indicating those women who may benefit from low-dose bromocriptine treatment administered at bedtime.

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Twenty women with nontumoural hyperprolactinemia and 20 healthy women matched for body mass index and age were recruited in this study. All participants were placed on fixed salt intake for 2 weeks before the experiments. The study was conducted in three phases. In phase I, the participants received an intravenous infusion of angiotensin II in three consecutive doses of 2, 4 and 6 ng/kg BW changed every 30 min. In phase II, the patients were started on bromocriptine in gradually increasing doses of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/day for 10 weeks. In phase III, the protocol of phase I was repeated in the patient group. Circulating levels of cortisol, plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone and prolactin were assayed.

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Adult rats were hypophysectomized and their pituitary glands autotransplanted on day 2 of an estrous cycle (day 1, ovulation); the rats were either hysterectomized or sham hysterectomized immediately before this operation. On day 21, a few days after the beginning of the 3+ month period of regression of progesterone secretion, they were injected sc with 500 micrograms prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) either on day 21 alone, on days 21 and 22, on days 21, 22, and 23, or on days 21 and 23; controls were injected with saline on days 21, 22, and 23. In the latter the serum progesterone level slowly fell, as it does in untreated rats subjected to pituitary autotransplantation on day 2. PGF2 alpha treatment induced a rapid, drastic fall in the progesterone level, but in each group except the one injected on days 21 and 23, the level returned to, or close to, the control level in about 10 days. Even in the group injected on days 21 and 23, the pattern of serum progesterone resembled the others although the values were much lower. In a similar group of rats subjected to pituitary autotransplantation on day 2 (all of which were also hysterectomized on day 2), a single injection of 500 micrograms PGF2 alpha (which again induced the same changes in serum progesterone as in the first experiment) was combined with either a 6-h or 4-h withdrawal of PRL; this was achieved by injecting 2 bromo-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154) at zero time to lower PRL secretion, and beef PRL, in a delaying vehicle, 6 or 4 h later, followed by a second dose of PRL 18 h after the first. When combined with such a brief period of PRL withdrawal, the PGF2 alpha treatment induced a very rapid, drastic and permanent fall in serum progesterone, equal to that induced by CB-154 alone, or by removing the pituitary transplant on day 21. The brief periods of PRL withdrawal, by themselves had very little (6 h) or no (4 h) effect on the progesterone level, and treatment with PRL alone was also without effect. Treatment with CB-154, PGF2 alpha, and PRL simultaneously (i.e. without a period of PRL withdrawal) had the same effect as treatment with PGF2 alpha alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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A short time ago, we reported that a subgroup of hospitalized alcoholic men with comorbid antisocial personality disorder (ASP) seemed to benefit significantly from antidepressant medication at the end of a 6-month period in a double-blind, random assignment, placebo-controlled study. In a reanalysis of those data, we divided the ASP alcoholic group (n = 29) into those who did (n = 15) and who did not (n = 14) also satisfy DSM-III-R criteria for an additional current mood and/or anxiety disorder and then compared the 6-month outcomes of these two smaller subgroups. Despite the small ns, the results for most drinking outcome measures indicated: (1) that ASP alcoholics with a current mood/anxiety disorder improved significantly more with pharmacological treatment, relative to placebo; and (2) that ASP alcoholics with no current mood/anxiety disorder failed to respond differentially to pharmacological treatment over the 6-month period. These findings suggest a possibly useful and inexpensive approach to the long-term management of a very difficult-to-treat subgroup of men substance abusers.

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parlodel brand name 2017-03-30

We report a rare case of type 1 diabetes in a woman associated with acromegaly who was treated with surgery after pregnancy. An 18-year-old woman came to our hospital in April, 1998 Menosan Pills , complaining of thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, appetite loss, body weight loss of 8 kg in a month, and amenorrhea beginning 2 months earlier. Based on laboratory data, she was diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although we suspected her of having acromegaly because of high growth hormone (GH) levels (6.9 or 8.5 ng/ml), blood levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were within normal range and the circadian rhythm of her blood GH levels was normally maintained. Her blood GH level was elevated to 12.6 ng/ml 15 minutes after a TRH administration. Blood GH levels were suppressed from 49 ng/ml to 1.5 ng/ml 4 hours after an oral administration of 2.5 mg of bromocriptine. A magnetic resonance images (MRIs) showed pituitary swelling, but no nodules were found in the pituitary. Therefore, we diagnosed her as having acromegaly and observed her without surgery, while prescribing diet therapy and intensive insulin therapy for diabetes. We started a treatment of oral administration of 7.5 mg of bromocriptine per day for the acromegaly from April 28, 2000, because her elevated GH was suspected of causing her diabetes to be poorly controlled. During a pregnancy from October, 2000 to September, 2001, diabetic control was improved with increased administration of insulin under a constant dose of bromocriptine. She delivered a normal full-term infant. After the bromocriptine therapy was stopped as she hoped to breastfeed, blood levels of GH and IGF-1 became elevated and her diabetic control deteriorated. As her pituitary tumor observed in pituitary MRIs became larger during the course, a transsphenoidal surgery was performed on March 8, 2002. After the surgery, blood levels of GH and IGF-1 lowered and diabetic control improved again. We concluded as follows: to rule out acromegaly in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, 1) measurements of serum GH and IGF-1 should be performed, and 2) pituitary MRIs should be performed if blood levels of GH or IGF-1 are high.

parlodel dosage hyperprolactinemia 2017-09-25

A cross-sectional evaluation was performed in two University referral centers. Fifty women with microprolactinoma answered the SF-36 questionnaire by the time of their clinical evaluation. Their biochemical analysis included PRL, estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG. Fifty women of similar age Low Dose 10 Mg Accutane distribution served as controls.

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Of the 8 studies identified, 5 were excluded after full-text review for the following reasons: lack of a placebo group (2); difference in cointerventions (1); difference in end points (1); and systematic review (1). Lopid 300 Mg Capsules Therefore, 3 RCTs were included in this review. Bromocriptine administered in combination with clomiphene was found to be associated with a higher accumulative pregnancy rate compared with clomiphene monotherapy (fixed odds ratio [OR], 5.33; 95% CI, 2.62-10.88), and a lower miscarriage rate (fixed OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.76). Only 1 trial reported live birth as an outcome, and multiple pregnancy rates were poorly reported. Patient-reported adverse effects were mentioned in the studies, but reports were often incomplete.

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Observational studies addressing the frequency of moderate or severe valvular regurgitation among ergoline-treated patients with Parkinson's disease were considered for a meta-analysis. Pooled risk Theraneem Herbal Neem Toothpaste Reviews estimates and the risk of increased pulmonary artery pressure were calculated.

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One of the most important causes of anticancer treatment failure is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The main characteristics of tumor cells displaying the MDR phenomena are cross-resistance to structurally unrelated cytotoxic drugs having different mechanisms of Artane User Reviews action and the overexpression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein named P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This study evaluated whether bromocriptine, a D2 dopaminergic receptor agonist, influenced anticancer drug cytotoxicity and P-gp activity in a P-gp-expressing cell line compared to a non-expressing subline. The K(i) values for P-gp of cyclosporine and verapamil were 1.09 and 540 microM, respectively, and that of bromocriptine was 6.52 microM in a calcein-AM efflux assay using porcine kidney epithelial LLC-PK1 and L-MDR1 cells, overexpressing human P-gp. Bromocriptine at 10 microM reduced the IC50 of doxorubicin (DXR) in K562-DXR from 9000 to 270 ng/ml and that of vincristine (VCR) in K562-VCR from 700 to 0.30 ng/ml, whereas the IC50 values of DXR and VCR in the K562 subline were only marginally affected by these drugs. Bromocriptine restored the anticancer effect of DXR, VCR, vinblastine, vinorelbine and etoposide on MDR-tumor cells overexpressing P-gp. These observations suggest that bromocriptine has the potential to reverse tumor MDR involving the efflux protein P-gp in the clinical situation.

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The selective dopamine D2-antagonist sulpiride potentiated contralateral circling behaviour induced by the D1-agonist CY 208-243 in rats with unilateral lesions of substantia nigra, but reduced the effects of the selective D2-agonist bromocriptine. Similarly, the D1-antagonist SCH 23390 tended to increase the effects of bromocriptine but markedly inhibited CY 208- Suprax Dosage 243 induced turning. The mixed D1/D2-antagonist fluphenazine was effective in reducing circling behaviour induced by either agonist, whereas pimozide (D1/D2) inhibited only the actions of bromocriptine. These results indicate that the actions of CY 208-243 and bromocriptine are mediated via distinct but interacting receptor subtypes.

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Nanoparticulate drug delivery system could be potentially used as a nose-to-brain drug delivery Crestor Mg Dosage carrier for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

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We have investigated the effects of veratridine, a Na+ channel activator, and ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+-K+-ATPase, on short term (1-h) PRL release from primary cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells and from the rat anterior pituitary cell line GH4C1 in culture. Both compounds should increase intracellular Na+. Veratridine (20-500 microM) and ouabain (0.1-3 mM) stimulated PRL release from normal cells. The stimulation was inhibited by the omission of Ca++ from the release buffer or by preincubation with the calcium channel blocker D600 (20-500 microM), suggesting a role for Ca++ in the action of these compounds. Ouabain (1 mM), but not veratridine (200 microM), Elavil 75 Mg Side Effects stimulated PRL release from GH4C1 cells, an effect that was also inhibited by calcium channel blockers. In the presence of the dopaminergic agonist bromocriptine (30 nM), the amount of stimulated release by veratridine (200 microM) and ouabain (1 mM) was reduced by 50%. The veratridine effect was only partially inhibited by preincubation of the cells with the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 and 10 microM), but the effect was inhibited completely when Na+ in the buffer was replaced by choline, suggesting that the action of veratridine requires extracellular Na+. The results of this study indicate that 1) ouabain- and veratridine-stimulated PRL release are largely dependent on Ca++; 2) veratridine appears to act through a tetrodotoxin-insensitive mechanism; and 3) stimulation of PRL release by these compounds is similar to that by 50 mM KCl and cAMP in its sensitivity to bromocriptine.

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After discussing some introductory considerations about the value of challenge tests in general for discriminating personality dimensions which are considered extrapolations of psychopathological diseases, the present paper outlines the matter of responsivity to agonistic and antagonistic dopaminergic drugs or drugs of different mechanisms of action in the dopaminergic system, and elucidates that different hormones elicited by dopaminergic substances (prolactin, growth hormone) may indicate personality related differences in susceptibility of different brain areas. A further point was to demonstrate not only the well known relationship of dopaminergic hyperactivity with reward seeking and motivational factors associated with extraversion and novelty seeking, but also the relationship of dopaminergic hypofunction with Diovan 20 Mg the personality dimension of depression which had already been reported in studies on animals and psychiatric patients. A final point was to demonstrate that besides size of hormone responses additional parameters like time of response onset and initial prolactin increase can be used as biochemical indicators for identifying certain personality types, like highly depressive neurotic persons characterized by lower and later dopamine responses as compared to low depressives, and extraverted sensation-seeking types responding by an initial prolactin peak as opposed to low sensation seekers.

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STAT5b, a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription family, is activated in rat liver in response to the intermittent (pulsatile) plasma pattern of GH that is characteristic of adult males. Previous studies have shown that the near-continuous plasma GH pattern of adult female rats is associated with a dramatic down-regulation of the STAT5 activation pathway. The present study demonstrates the presence of a low-level STAT5 DNA-binding activity in adult female rat liver and investigates the hormonal factors required for its maintenance. PRL is not responsible for this low-level STAT5 activity, as demonstrated in experiments involving estrus cycle monitoring (to investigate a possible role of the proestrus PRL surge), implantation of bromocriptine pellets (to eliminate PRL release by the pituitary), and direct injection of purified PRL. Rather, the low-level STAT5 activity is shown to result from Cut Cialis Pills chronic plasma GH stimulation, as demonstrated by GH infusion studies carried out in hypophysectomized rats. Furthermore, gel mobility supershift experiments demonstrate that the same STAT5-containing DNA-binding complexes are formed by both male and female adult rat liver extracts, albeit at approximately 10- to 20-fold lower levels by the female extracts. This DNA-binding activity is primarily comprised of STAT5b but also contains STAT5a, which is shown to be preferentially activated by the male plasma GH pattern in a manner similar to STAT5b. Thus, the dominance of activated STAT5b, compared with STAT5a, in the strong DNA-binding complexes formed in adult male rat liver nuclear extracts, is a reflection of the relative abundance in liver of the two STAT5 forms and is not attributable to an intrinsic, preferential activation of STAT5b by plasma GH pulses. The physiological significance of the low-level activated STAT5a and STAT5b seen in female rat liver and its effects on liver gene expression are uncertain but may involve the activation of female-expressed cytochromes P450 and other liver genes.

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Macroprolactinomas are pituitary tumours which have been effectively treated medically since the introduction of bromocriptine. The visual function of 13 patients treated with a new prolactin (PRL) inhibitor CV 205-502 (Sandoz Basle), a potent and selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist, was evaluated. This is the first detailed ophthalmic report of the use of this drug in macroprolactinomas. Patients were enrolled from June 1988 to July 1990 (mean follow up 30 months Cozaar 100 Mg ). Visual function including visual acuity, ocular pressure, and visual fields was regularly controlled. Visual fields (VF) were tested with Goldmann and automatic static perimetry (Vision Monitor). Treatment was globally effective. No modifications of the visual function were observed in nine patients (six normal, three previous VF losses after surgery). In four other patients, visual function dramatically improved (regression of a III paresis, one case; disappearance of a chiasmatic syndrome, three cases). A pituitary necrosis was observed in one case and successfully cured. CV 205-502 seems to be an effective and well tolerated treatment of macroprolactinomas.