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A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of erythema in the eyelids and fingers of both hands. Slight muscle weakness in the proximal limbs, a heliotrope rash, Gottron's sign, and mechanic's hand were observed. Creatine kinase serum levels were slightly elevated (376U/l), and the patient tested negative for all autoantibodies except for the antinuclear antibody. Chest computed tomography showed interstitial pneumonia (IP). Based on these findings, the patient was given a diagnosis of dermatomyositis (DM) associated with IP. Combined prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) and cyclosporin-A (Cy-A 4 mg/kg/day) therapy was initiated; the patient showed marked improvement, but the Cy-A caused liver damage. Therefore, Cy-A was tapered off, and tacrolimus was simultaneously started, initially at a dose of 1 mg/day, building up to a sustained dose of 4 mg/day. The patient's IP and liver condition improved. Tacrolimus is a useful drug for the treatment of DM-IP in cases where Cy-A causes intolerable adverse reactions.
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A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy and tolerability of tacrolimus ointment for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) compared with topical corticosteroids.
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure, and podocyte injury plays a major role in the development of DN. In this study, we investigated whether tacrolimus (FK506), an immunosuppressor, can attenuate podocyte injury in a type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) rat model with DN. Transmission electron microcopy was used to morphologically evaluate renal injury. The urinary albumin (UAL), creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) and major biochemical parameters, including glucose, insulin, serum creatinine (Scr), urea nitrogen, total cholesterol (CHO) and triglyceride (TG), were examined 12 weeks after the administration of FK506. The expressions of the canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and nephrin were detected by Western blotting and qPCR. In the rat model of DN, the expressions of TRPC6 and NFAT were significantly elevated compared with the normal rat group; however, the treatment with FK506 normalized the increased expression of TRPC6 and NFAT and attenuated podocyte ultrastructure injury. UAL, Ccr and the biochemical parameters were also improved by the use of FK506. In cell experiments, FK506 improved the decreased expression of nephrin and suppressed the elevated expression of both TRPC6 and NFAT caused by high glucose in accordance with TRPC6 blocker U73122. Our results demonstrated that FK506 could ameliorate podocyte injury in T2DM, which may be related to suppressed expressions of TRPC6 and NFAT.
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Glycosylated hemoglobin was reduced in the transplant recipients from 7.0% ± 0.3% to 5.6% ± 0.1% (P < .01). There were increases in total (0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.15 ± 0.02 dL/min·kg per microunit per milliliter), hepatic [2.3 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 × 10(2) ([milligrams per kilogram per minute](-1)·(microunits per milliliter)(-1))], and peripheral (0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.02 dL/min·kg per microunit per milliliter) insulin sensitivity from before to after transplantation (P < .05 for all). All insulin sensitivity measures were less than normal in T1D before (P ≤ .05) and not different from normal after transplantation.
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Eighty-nine percent of subjects with COPD exhibited a decline in HDL-C. Median decline for the COPD cohort was 25 mg/dL (IQR 12-38 mg/dL, p < 0.0001). Non-COPD subjects exhibited no significant changes in HDL-C. Other lipid changes in the COPD cohort included a rise in triglycerides of 70 mg/dL (IQR 35 to 140, p < 0.0001). Decreases in HDL-C levels were independent from the rise in triglyceride levels. Neither LDL-C nor non-HDL-C demonstrated significant changes. Subjects with greater increases in prednisone exposure post-transplant exhibited lesser declines in HDL-C. Compared with tacrolimus, cyclosporine had no effect on observed changes in HDL-C or triglycerides, but was associated with a greater median rise in LDL-C.
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Although the incidence of NODAT was higher in Group 3 than in groups 1 and 2, no significant difference was found between the three groups with regard to graft survival during long-term follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that only a family history of diabetes was a significant factor determining NODAT progression.
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English language, indexed publications in PubMed were searched using combinations of following key words: "interleukin-33", "IL-33", "suppression of tumorigenicity 2", ST2", "sST2", "HIV", "HBV", "HCV", "CMV", "HPV", "immunotherapy" and "vaccine". Except for seminal studies, only articles published between 2010 and 2016 were included.
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ImmuBalance could exhibit favorable alterations on AD symptoms, particularly through down regulation of the itch sensation.
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are the cornerstone of immunosuppression after liver transplantation. However, CNI treatment is frequently associated with chronic renal failure (CRF). The reduction or interruption of CNI may reduce renal failure. We prospectively studied 49 liver recipients treated with CNI (tacrolimus, n = 14; cyclosporine, n = 35) who secondarily developed CNI-associated CRF and for whom mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was introduced to reduce or withdraw CNI. The creatinine clearance (CCl; 42.9 +/- 14 ml/minute) increased significantly after CNI reduction (48.8 +/- 17 ml/minute after 1 year, 49.9 +/- 18 ml/minute after 2 years, and 58.4 +/- 20 ml/minute after 3 years, P < 0.0001). CCl decreased during the 2 years before CNI reduction at a rate of -5.6 +/- 5 ml/minute/year; for the 2 years after CNI reduction, CCl increased significantly by +3.2 +/- 4.3 ml/minute/year (P < 0.0001). Ten patients did not have improved renal function after 1 year, but the rate of decrease in CCl slowed after CNI reduction. Three parameters were identified as risk factors for unresponsiveness to CNI reduction: (1) low CCl at MMF introduction, (2) a high rate of CCl decrease during the 2 years before conversion, and (3) alcoholic cirrhosis. The type of CNI molecule used did not impair the renal response. None of the patients developed acute or chronic graft rejection after the reduction or interruption of CNI. In liver recipients with CRF, a reduction or withdrawal of CNI concomitantly with the introduction of MMF was safe and was associated with an improvement in renal function.
Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to FK506-induced hypertension and its molecular mechanisms were retrieved, reviewed and analyzed.
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We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 308-nm excimer lamp as a monotherapy and its combination with tacrolimus 0.1% or clobetasol 17-propionate 0.05% ointment in localized vitiligo.