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The main outcome measure was the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the ODT formulations.
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The results show that the 90% confidence intervals for the geometric mean ratios of the solution and the tablet formulations were not within the acceptance range of 80 125% for risperidone, whereas the confidence intervals for 9-hydroxyrisperidone were within the acceptance range of 80 - 125%.
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The preparation and investigation of sustained-release risperidone-encapsulated microspheres using erodible poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) of lower molecular weight were performed and compared to that of commercial Risperdal Consta™ for the treatment of schizophrenia. The research included screening and optimizing of suitable commercial polymers of lower molecular weight PLGA50/50 or the blends of these PLGA polymers to prepare microspheres with zero-order release kinetics properties. Solvent evaporation method was applied here while studies of the risperidone loaded microsphere were carried out on its drug encapsulation capacity, morphology, particle size, as well as in vitro release profiles. Results showed that microspheres prepared using 50504A PLGA or blends of 5050-type PLGAs exerted spherical and smooth morphology, with a higher encapsulation efficiency and nearly zero-order release kinetics. These optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™, which could further improve the patient compliance.
The liquid SELFs were designed using various oils, nonionic surfactants and converted into solid at various SELF: NUS2 (%m/m) mixing ratios. The characterization of solid SELF powder was performed by using SEM, XRD, FT-IR & DSC to investigate the physical nature of the drug. The in vitro dissolution experiments were conducted to compare the representative formulations with marketed product risperdal®. In vitro digestion experiments were performed using a pH-stat at pH 6.8 for 30mins to predict the fate of risperidone in the GI tract after exposure of the solid SELF to pancreatic enzymes and bile.
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To meet the requirements for marketing a new generic product, this study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two 2 mg tablet formulations of risperidone: a newly developed generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference) in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers.
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To compare the efficacy and incidence of adverse effects of haloperidol with risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine in the treatment of delirium.
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The mean effect size for the database was 1.047 and the sample weighted mean effect size was 1.108, with a variance of 0.18.
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The results from the characterization studies showed that NUS2 with SELF at 1:1 (%m/m) yield superior flowability of the powder. The SEM revealed that pure risperidone was in irregular crystal shape whereas the drug loaded solid SELFs were in smooth regular shape. The XRD and DSC analyses of pure risperidone also confirmed the intense peaks due to the native crystalline form of the drug. However, the absence of sharp peaks in solid SELFs indicated the amorphous form of the drug. From the dissolution studies it was found that solid SELFs provided significant release profiles (>95%) compared to marketed product risperdal®. The digestion experiments suggested that risperidone was in a supersaturated state which could be maintained in the presence of mixed bile salt micelles.
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Risperidone, as monotherapy and adjunctive treatment, is effective in reducing manic symptoms. The main adverse effects are weight gain, extrapyramidal effects and sedation. Risperidone is comparable in efficacy to haloperidol. Higher quality trials are required to provide more reliable and precise estimates of its costs and benefits.
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The objective of the present study was to determine whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) can be established for polymeric microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes. Risperidone was chosen as a model therapeutic and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with similar molecular weight as that used in the commercial product Risperdal® Consta® was used to prepare risperidone microspheres. Various manufacturing processes were investigated to produce the risperidone microspheres with similar drug loading (approx. 37%) but distinctly different physicochemical properties (e.g. porosity, particle size and particle size distribution). In vitro release of the risperidone microspheres was investigated using different release testing methods (such as sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4). In vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of the risperidone microsphere formulations following intramuscular administration were determined using a rabbit model. Furthermore, the obtained pharmacokinetic profiles were deconvoluted using the Loo-Riegelman method and the calculated in vivo release was compared with the in vitro release of these microspheres. Level A IVIVCs were established and validated for the compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres based on the in vitro release data obtained using USP apparatus 4. The developed IVIVCs demonstrated good predictability and were robust. These results showed that the developed USP apparatus 4 method was capable of discriminating PLGA microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but with manufacturing differences and predicting their in vivo performance in the investigated animal model.