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Rulide (Roxythromycin)
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Rulide

Generic Rulide is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria (acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

Other names for this medication:
Acevor, Allolide, Aristomycin, Asmetic, Assoral, Azuril, Bazuctril, Biaxsig, Bicofen, Biostatik, Cadithro, Claramid, Crolix, Delitroxin, Delos, Dorolid, Elrox, Erybros, Floxid, Infectoroxit, Inferoxin, Ixor, Kensodic, Klomicina, Ladlid, Macrolid, Macrosil, Makrodex, Monobac, Nirox, Odonticina, Overal, Pedilid, Pedrox, Ramivan, Redotrin, Remora, Renicin, Ridinfect, Ritosin, Rocky, Rokilide, Rokithrid, Roksimin, Roksolit, Rolexit, Rolicyn, Rolid, Romac, Romyk, Rossitrol, Rotramin, Roxacine, Roxithromycine, Roxithromycinum, Roxitromicina, Rulid,

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Also known as:  Roxythromycin.

Description

Generic Rulide belongs to macrolides group of antibiotics which are prescribed for treating serious bacterial infections such as acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin). It acts on the bacteria which causes the above mention bacterial infections caused by the bacteria. It kills completely or slows the growth of these sensitive bacteria in our body.

Generic name of Generic Rulide is Roxithromycin.

Rulide is also known as Roxithromycin, Roximycin, Biaxsig, Roxar, Surlid.

Brand name of Generic Rulide is Rulide.

Dosage

Take Generic Rulide by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

Swallow Generic Rulide tablets whole with a glass of water.

Generic Rulide should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal).

Generic Rulide works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

For treating bacterial infections, Generic Rulide is usually taken for 5 to 10 days.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Rulide suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Rulide and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Rulide are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Rulide if you are allergic to Generic Rulide components.

Try to be careful with Generic Rulide if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Rulide taking suddenly.

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A specific, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of azithromycin in human plasma. After deproteinizing the plasma sample with methanol, azithromycin and internal standard (IS: roxithromycin) were separated using a mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile : ammonium acetate buffer (50 mM, containing 0.05% acetic acid)=85:15 on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm ID, dp 1.9 μm). Detection was performed with a tandem mass spectrometer by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) through electrospray ionization. Target ions were monitored at [M+H]+ m/z 749.5→591.5 and 837.7→679.5 in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode for azithromycin and IS respectively. Linearity was established for the range of concentrations 2-800 ng/mL with a coefficient of correlation (r) of 0.9996. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was identifiable and reproducible at 2.0 ng/mL. Both intra- and inter-batch standard deviations were less than 15%. The validated method was successfully applied to study the comparative bioavailability of azithromycin for suspension in test vs. reference in healthy Chinese volunteers through the statistical comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters obtained with the two formulations.

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A. actinomycetemcomitans was highly susceptible to both fluoro-quinolones (MIC90 of 0.006 microgram/mL of ciprofloxacin and 0.032 microgram/mL of moxifloxacin). Good susceptibilities were found for ampicillin/sulbactam and doxycycline (MIC90 of 0.75 microgram/mL and 1 microgram/mL, respectively), and moderate susceptibilities for azithromycin (MIC90 of 3 microgram/mL). Most strains were resistant to metronidazole and roxithromycin. Cluster analysis revealed two larger clusters of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains with the smaller cluster assembling isolates with significantly higher MICs of most antibiotics.

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Macrolides may cause severe drug interactions due to the inhibition of metabolizing enzymes. Transporter-mediated uptake of drugs into cells [e.g., by members of the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family] is a determinant of drug disposition and a prerequisite for subsequent metabolism. However whether macrolides are also inhibitors of uptake transporters, thereby providing an additional mechanism of drug interactions, has not been systematically studied. The human OATP family members OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 mediate the uptake of endogenous substances and drugs such as antibiotics and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) into hepatocytes. In this study we investigated the potential role of these uptake transporters on macrolide-induced drug interactions. By using sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor pravastatin as substrates, the effects of the macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin and of the ketolide telithromycin on the OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated uptake were analyzed. These experiments demonstrated that the OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated uptake of BSP and pravastatin can be inhibited by increasing concentrations of all macrolides except azithromycin. The IC50 values for the inhibition of OATP1B3-mediated BSP uptake were 11 microM for telithromycin, 32 microM for clarithromycin, 34 microM for erythromycin, and 37 microM for roxithromycin. These IC50 values were lower than the IC50 values for inhibition of OATP1B1-mediated BSP uptake (96-217 microM). These macrolides also inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated uptake of pravastatin. In summary, these results indicate that alterations of uptake transporter function by certain macrolides/ketolides have to be considered as a potential additional mechanism underlying drug-drug interactions.

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Data from human studies published in the English language were evaluated. Trials were assessed by sample size, macrolide dosage regimen, and therapeutic response.

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We hypothesized that bacterial biofilm formation could be an important factor that make some infection intractable. Interaction of P. aeruginosa biofilm with antibactial agents was examined in vitro.

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Twenty-two healthy women participated in a study to determine whether roxithromycin (a new macrolide antibiotic agent) obtunds the activity of a triphasic oral contraceptive. The duration of the study was four menstrual cycles. Medication was given as follows: (1) cycle 1, no medication to demonstrate ovulation; (2) cycle 2, triphasic oral contraceptive daily to suppress ovulation; (3) cycle 3, triphasic oral contraceptive daily plus roxithromycin, 150 mg b.i.d.; and (4) cycle 4, triphasic oral contraceptive daily plus rifampin, 300 mg daily. Sonography of the ovaries was performed on day 13, and serum progesterone was measured on day 21 of each cycle. Elevated progesterone indicated ovulation. The presence of a maturing follicle supported this finding. All volunteers ovulated in the first cycle and no volunteers ovulated in the second and third cycles. However, 11 women ovulated when rifampin and the triphasic oral contraceptive were given concomitantly. The findings suggest there is no reason to believe that roxithromycin interferes with the efficacy of oral contraceptives.

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To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Roxithromycin (RXM), we studied 56 chronic sinusitis patients with nasal polyps using computed tomography (CT) and electron microscopy in addition to conventional clinical assessment. The paranasal sinus of subjects was observed clinically before and after daily administration of RXM at 300 mg for 3 months all underwent allergy testing for possible complications of allergic rhinitis based on subjective symptoms and objective findings. Improvement after RXM treatment was seen in 50.3% based on subjective symptoms and 59.1% based on objective findings. Overall improvement was seen in 53.6%. In 41 cases (73.2%) of all patients with chronic sinusitis and complications of allergic rhinitis, no significant difference was seen between patients with and without complications (53.7% in those with complications and 53.3% in those without). In CT analysis the paranasal sinus in 51.8% of all posttreated patients showed obvious improvement. In electron microscopy in chronic sinusitis patients with complications of allergic rhinitis, pretreated ethmoidal sinus tissues showed high mucous epithelial cell apoptosis in addition to common histological lesions, while posttreatment patients showed only eosinophil apoptosis in the interstitium and no apoptotic epithelial cells. We divided ethmoidal sinus lesions in patients without complications into 3 types and evaluated them as follows: In type 1, pretreated ethmoidal sinus tissues showed plasma cell infiltration and posttreatment cell apoptosis. In type 2, pretreated tissues showed lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration and posttreated showed only some lymphocytes and no plasma cells. In type 3, proliferation of fibroblasts, most of which showed apoptosis, was seen in addition to apoptotic epithelial cells before treatment, while after treatment, these lesions remained with some apoptotic bodies phagocytosed by macrophages. In type 3 patients relapsed after surgery. Our findings indicate that RXM treatment had a significant therapeutic effect on chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps with and without complications of allergic rhinitis. We clarify the morphological mechanism of therapeutic effect of RXM on each type of ethmoidal sinus lesion divided by light and electron microscopy.

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To investigate the impact of treatment with low dose roxithromycin on clinical symptoms and CT scores in patients with stable bronchiectasis.

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We evaluated the effects of a new semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, on the bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine in children with asthma. Twelve hospitalized asthmatic children, aged 11 to 15 years (mean age, 12.9 years), were enrolled in this study. They were treated with 150 mg of roxithromycin once a day orally for 8 weeks without any side effects. The PC20 value 4 or 8 weeks after the administration of roxithromycin increased significantly over the initial values (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant change was observed in serum theophylline concentrations during this study. Serum cortisol level in the morning did not change after the administration of roxithromycin for 4 weeks. These results suggest that administration of roxithromycin may act favorably in the treatment of childhood asthma.

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Elevated antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae have been associated with coronary artery disease. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty, we therefore investigated the effect of roxithromycin on symptomatic restenosis and determined antichlamydial antibodies as well as inflammatory and immunological parameters.

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Tiamulin and a number of macrolides were evaluated as to their ability in forming metabolic-intermediate (MI) complexes with cytochrome P450 in liver microsomes from rabbits bred for meat production. Complex formation, which occurred only in preparations where the expression of P450 3A was increased as the result of rifampicin pre-treatment and with different kinetics, was in the order tiamulin > erythromycin > TAO approximately roxithromycin approximately tylosin and did not take place with tilmicosin and spiramycin. Most of the tested compounds underwent an oxidative N-dealkylation and a good relationship could be found between the rate of N-dealkylase activity in induced preparations and the aptitude in generating MI complexes. Although the results from in vitro studies should be interpreted with caution, it is suggested that the potential for in vivo drug interactions also exists in the rabbit for tiamulin and for four out of the six tested macrolides.

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We investigated the distributions of 12 antibiotics (viz., sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim) in the water from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, and compared them with those in the Tamagawa River, Japan. In Vietnam, only a few antibiotics (viz., sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, and erythromycin-H2O) were detected in the river and canals from urban and rural sites, at concentrations of 7-360 ng/L. This contrasts with the results from the Japanese urban river, where more antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfapyridine, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H20, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin) were detected at concentrations ranging from 4to 448 ng/L. The concentrations of sulfonamides in the Mekong Delta were comparable to those in the Tamagawa River, whereas macrolide concentrations were lowerthanthose in the Tamagawa River. The ubiquitous occurrence of sulfamethazine, used as a veterinary medicine, in the waters in Vietnam at relatively high concentrations (15-328 ng/L) was unique. Extremely high concentrations of sulfamethazine [(18.5-19.2) x 10(3) ng/L] were detected in pig farm wastewaters, and relatively high concentrations were observed in canals near chicken and pig farms. All these data suggested the potential utility of sulfamethazine as a molecular marker of livestock-source contamination. The present study demonstrated widespread inputs of veterinary medicines to waters in Vietnam.

rulide roxithromycin dosage

Antibiotic sensitivity of 21 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans, monkeys and birds with diarrhea was assayed and the findings are presented. It was shown that all the isolates were highly sensitive to ofloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, josamycin, pipemidinic acid and amoxyclav (a combination of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid). The predominating majority of the strains were resistant to rifampicin, amoxycillin and phosphomycin. The majority of the cultures were sensitive to erythromycin and roxithromycin while some of the isolates were resistant to them which could be used as an additional biological characteristic of Campylobacter cultures and considered in choosing agents for antibiotic therapy.

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The susceptibility of the obligate intracellular chlamydiae was studied in primary coronary endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and immortalized epithelial cells. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for ofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, rifapentin and rifampin.

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rulide 150 mg tablet 2017-01-23

A multiclass, multiresidue determination method is reported for the detection of ten veterinary drugs, including scopolamine, metoclopramide, acriflavine, berberine, tripelennamine, diphenhydramine, acrinol, triamcinolone, loperamide, and roxithromycin in pork, milk, and eggs. The method involves a simple extraction using 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile, followed by defatting with n-hexane, centrifugation, and filtration prior to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric analysis. As ion suppression and enhancement effects are reported, matrix-matched calibrations are used for quantification, with determination coefficients ≥0.9765. For the majority of the tested analytes, the intra- and interday accuracy (expressed as recovery %) range from 70.6 to 94.6% and from 70.1 to 93.3%, respectively, and the precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) ranges from 0.5 to 19.8% and from 2.8 to 18.4% in all matrices. The limits of quantification range between 0.5 and 10 ng/g. The validated tandem mass spectrometry method is successfully applied to market samples; the target analytes are not detected in any of the tested samples. In terms of accuracy, no extract cleanup is deemed necessary. The developed method is feasible for the simultaneous detection of the tested analytes in pork, milk, and Indocin 75 Mg Bid eggs.

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In addition to their antibiotic effects, tetracyclines have anti-inflammatory action that is often beneficial in the control of inflammatory skin disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of tetracycline (TET) and two of its derivatives, doxycycline (DOX) and minocycline (MIN), on the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) elicited by the activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). In NHEK, the production of IL-8 stimulated by an agonist peptide of PAR2, SLIGKIV-NH(2), at 100 microM was significantly reduced by TET, DOX, or MIN at 5 and 10 microM, concentrations that are noncytotoxic. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced production of IL-8 was synergistically augmented by SLIGKIV-NH(2), and that synergistic increase in the production of IL-8 was suppressed by 100 nM PAR2-specific small interfering RNA. It was also suppressed by TET, DOX, or MIN but not by the 14-membered-ring macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, Minipress Dosage Forms roxithromycin, and clarithromycin, which also have anti-inflammatory activities, at 10 microM. These results suggest that tetracyclines attenuate the PAR2-IL-8 axis in keratinocytes and thereby effectively modulate proinflammatory responses in the skin.

rulide medication ingredients 2017-10-06

The entry criteria was fulfilled in 250 patients, of whom 13 missed the control endoscopy. The treatment had to be discontinued for adverse effects Zovirax Generic Name in 8 (10%) BRMR patients, and 1 (1%) PCA patients. Compliance was 100% in the PC group. All ulcers were healed at the end of the study with one exception in the BRMR group. The best eradication rate of Hp was shown by the PCA group with 94.8% (n = 73/77) followed by the PC group with 82.5% (n = 66/80) and finally the BRMR with 67.6% (n = 48/71)-PCA:BRMR - p < 0.001; PC:BRMR-p < 0.001; PCA:PC-p < 0.05.

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To assess the Zithromax Dosage Pediatric Pneumonia effects of medical treatment on the expansion rate of small abdominal aortic aneurysms.

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Since acne formation is a multistep process accelerated by androgens, we examined whether a new anti-acne antibiotic roxithromycin (RXM) may act as anti-androgen using transient transfection assays in human skin fibroblasts. The result showed no significant effect of 0.5, 1 and 5 microg/ml RXM on 10(-9) M R1881-induced androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity. While the cotransfection of exogenous ARA55, a novel AR coactivator, increased AR transactivation up to 2.59-fold, this increase was attenuated by 5 microg/ml RXM to 64.7%. Semiquantitative RT-PCR results showed that 0.1 mM H(2)O(2) treatment increased ARA55 mRNA expression level, indicating that reactive oxygen species increase the expression of ARA55 in skin. These results suggest that RXM may serve as anti-androgen only in the hypersensitive state to androgen, but not in the physiological state, through modulating end-organ hypersensitive condition Cleocin 1 Gel to androgen possibly involving the pathway from reactive oxygen species to ARA55.

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Macrolide and tetracycline antibiotics, which are protein synthesis inhibitors, are effective in the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia. We evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of roxithromycin, a new macrolide antibiotic, in the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia. Roxithromycin was administered orally to patients who had been definitely diagnosed through Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolation or serum antibody titer as having mycoplasma pneumonia. The efficacy assessment was based on clinical signs and symptoms of infection as well as bacterial culture from clinical samples. Clinical efficacy was excellent in 6 cases, good in 6 cases and fair in 1 case, with an efficacy rate of 92.3%. The bacteriological effect was evaluated in Sinemet Dosing Frequency 6 patients: the organism was eradicated in 4 cases and unchanged in 2 cases. In this study, the MIC of roxithromycin against M. pneumoniae fell in the range 0.0156-0.00625 mg/l. No adverse reaction was observed. As for abnormal laboratory findings, two cases showed elevated serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (S-GPT), one elevated serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and S-GPT, and one reduced neutrophil counts. From our results, we consider that roxithromycin is useful in the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia.

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Macrolide antibiotics are used for the treatment Effexor Xr Daily Dose of immunological disorders such as psoriasis. However, few studies have investigated the immunoregulatory efficacy of macrolides in bacterial superantigen-stimulated immune cells.

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In a prospective randomized placebo-controlled study 1010 patients with successful coronary stent placement received roxithromycin or placebo for 4 weeks after coronary stent placement, which showed no effect of roxithromycin on early thrombotic events, as expected. Venous blood samples were collected from patients immediately before treatment. Plasma was analyzed for C. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibody levels by microimmuno-fluorescence. Thrombotic events were defined as death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, Aggrenox 25 200 Mg Generic or urgent target vessel reintervention within 30 days after stent placement. We found no significant difference concerning the frequency of early thrombotic events in patients positive or negative for C. pneumoniae-specific antibodies. If patients were stratified according to their antibody levels, again no significant difference in the frequency of thrombotic events was observed.

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Eighty eight strains came from skin of soft tissues, 19 from surgical wounds, 18 from invasive infections, 15 from pharyngeal swabs and 9 from other locations. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, roxithromycin and miocamycin. Ninety nine percent of strains were susceptible to erythromycin. Strains isolated in 1995-95 had a higher MIC 50 and 90 for erythromycin than those isolated Cialis 5 Mg Daily in 1986.

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In the present study, the Prevotella species are the most frequently isolated obligate anaerobes from periodontal abscesses. The current results show their alarmingly high resistance rate against clindamycin and roxithromycin; thus, the use of these antibiotics is unacceptable Stromectol Pill for the empirical therapy of periodontal abscesses. A brief prevalence of four resistance genes in the anaerobic bacteria that were isolated was also demonstrated.

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To determine the effect of RXM on involucrin expression of keratinocytes.

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Acute renal failure (ARF) following Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia is rarely reported in adults. We present an observation in a 10-year-old child, who had C. pneumoniae pneumonia treated with roxithromycin for a period of 10 days, without any other nephrotoxic drug, in particular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. At the end of antibiotic treatment, he presented with asthenia, polyuria, polydipsia, increased plasma creatinine, metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and markers of tubular damage. The etiological investigations showed positive C. pneumoniae antibodies, increased serum concentrations of C3 and C4 complement, IgA, and IgG. No uveitis was noted. The diagnosis was tubulointerstitial nephropathy after C. pneumoniae pneumonia. C. pneumoniae pneumonia should be considered a differential diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in cases of poor response to conventional antibiotic therapy. It may be associated with tubulointerstitial nephropathy and/or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis whose severity varies in children as in adults. Early and effective treatment of C. pneumoniae infection with macrolide antibiotics usually provides favorable progression of renal function.

rulide tablets 2017-02-26

In periodontitis, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are upregulated in response to locally released inflammatory cytokines, resulting in pathologic processes. Roxithromycin is a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic with broad-spectrum antibacterial effects against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects. Recently, we reported that roxithromycin inhibits tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cell cultures. In the present study, we examined the effect of roxithromycin on TNF-alpha-induced MMP-1 production by HPDL cells.

rulide 150 mg chemist warehouse 2016-05-11

The semisynthetic antibiotic roxithromycin (RXM) exists in an (E)-configuration. Metabolites of RXM in the bile of four cholecystectomy patients with T-tube drainage and in the urine and plasma of four healthy volunteers after single oral doses of 150 mg of RXM were investigated. A total of 15 metabolites were found in bile, urine, and plasma by HPLC with ion trap mass spectrometric and electrochemical detection. These metabolites were identified as descladinose derivative of RXM (M1), erythromycin-oxime (M2), N-, O-, and N,O-di-demethylated derivatives of RXM (M3, M4, and M6), and N-mono- and N-di-demethylated derivatives of erythromycin-oxime (M5 and M7), as well as the (Z)-isomers (M8-M15) of RXM and metabolites M1 to M7, respectively. Structures of six major metabolites (M1-M4, M8, and M10) were established by chromatographic and mass spectrometric determination and comparison with synthesized standards. The stability of RXM and the six synthesized substances was investigated to exclude artifact products. These results, together with previous findings, suggest that biotransformation pathways elucidated for RXM include: 1) isomerization of RXM derivatives, from E-isomer to Z-isomer; 2) O-demethylation; 3) N-demethylation; 4) hydrolysis of the cladinose moiety; and 5) dealkylation of the oxime ether side chain. Secondary metabolism via these pathways was also evidenced. The O-demethylation and isomerization of RXM derivatives represent two novel biotransformation pathways recovered for RXM.