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Quantitative analysis of internally-cued, repetitive motor performance in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
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We have investigated whether the potential benefits of a controlled release formulation of levodopa (200 mg)/carbidopa (50 mg), Sinemet CR, are realised during maintenance therapy. Eight sufferers from idiopathic Parkinsonism, mean age 69.9 y, were studied: all exhibited "end of dose" effect within 4 h of a dose of their maintenance therapy with levodopa (100 mg)/carbidopa (25 mg) in a conventional release formulation, Sinemet Plus. They received, in random order, initial single dose challenges with one tablet of Sinemet Plus, one and two tablets of Sinemet CR and placebo alone, each on a separate day. After a mean of 21 weeks on maintenance therapy with Sinemet CR, subsequent single dose challenges with Sinemet CR and placebo were made. Objective measures of performance and blood sampling for assay of plasma concentrations of levodopa and the major peripheral metabolite, 3-0-methyldopa (30MD) were carried out immediately before (10.00 h) and serially until 6 h after each challenge. The overall mean stride length was significantly greater in relation to the subsequent (679 mm) than the initial (517 mm) placebo challenge. Moreover, stride length immediately before the challenges was significantly greater on the subsequent occasions. Improved performance, also seen for free walking speed, was not explained by plasma levodopa or 30MD concentrations. In the initial challenges, the mean increment in stride length achieved by active treatment, as compared with placebo, did not differ significantly between the one (210 mm) and two (235 mm) tablet doses of Sinemet CR: a maximal response had been obtained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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We evaluated prospectively open-label seven advanced PD patients (65.7 ± 9.6 years, 71.4% men) treated with DLI. Schwab & England Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), 39-item Parkinson's disease QoL Questionnaire Summary Index score (PDQ-39SI), Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZCBI), and Caregiver Strain Index (CSI) were used. Comparisons were made between scores obtained at baseline and those at a mean follow-up of 31.4 ± 7.9 months (range, 23-42).
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When advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience motor complications (fluctuations and dyskinesias) despite standard oral treatment, two treatment options are available: deep brain stimulation and subcutaneous apomorphine infusion with respects of indications for each strategy. Continuous intraduodenal infusion of levodopa (Duodopa) via a gastrojejunal tube may be proposed at this stage of the disease and the study of indications and clinical results with Duodopa may develop this new therapeutic alternative.
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The paper reports plasma levels of levodopa (LD), its main metabolites [dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, 3-O-methyldopa (3-O-MD)] and carbidopa in 14 parkinsonian patients first treated with Sinemet and thereafter with Sinemet-CR4. A good relationship was observed between LD plasma levels and pharmacological effects. While the LD area under the curve increased after Sinemet-CR4, the same was not observed with metabolites, except with 3-O-MD. The experiments in volunteer subjects confirmed the increase in 3-O-MD in plasma after Sinemet-CR4. Higher levels were observed also in the CSF with a reduction of LD concentrations. This seems to corroborate the hypothesis of an interference with LD passage through the blood-brain barrier in humans.
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On the basis of observations of 18 patients the authors evaluated clinically the action of Sinement preparation (Merch, Sharp and Dohme) containing L-dopa 250 mg and carbidopa 25 mg in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In the evaluation particular attention was given to side effects. Therapeutic results of Sinemet and L-dopa alone were compared in patients receiving these drugs alternatively. The observations of authors indicate that Sinemet gives the same therapeutic results as L-dopa, but in much lower doses and with less frequent side effects. Sinemet, similarly as L-dopa exerts the best effect on bradykinesia and muscular rigidity and less on tremor.
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Motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) are a consequence of pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation from standard oral levodopa therapy. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is infused continuously via an intrajejunal percutaneous gastrostomy tube. This was the first study designed to characterize the full pharmacokinetic profiles of levodopa, carbidopa, and levodopa metabolite, 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) with 16-h LCIG infusion. Nineteen advanced PD patients (mean age, 65 years) who were on LCIG therapy for ≥30 days were enrolled. Patients received their individualized LCIG infusion doses, and serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected. Eighteen patients completed the study; 19 were assessed for safety. Mean (SD) total levodopa and carbidopa doses were 1,580 (403) and 395 (101) mg, respectively. Mean (SD) C(avg) (μg/mL) were 2.9 (0.84) for levodopa, 17.1 (4.99) for 3-OMD, and 0.22 (0.08) for carbidopa. The degree of fluctuation [defined as (C(max)-C(min))/C(avg)] in levodopa, 3-OMD, and carbidopa plasma concentrations was very low (0.52, 0.21, and 0.96, respectively) during hours 2-16 of infusion. Accordingly, the within-subject coefficients of variation in levodopa, 3-OMD, and carbidopa concentrations were low (13%, 6%, and 19%, respectively). Three patients (16%) reported ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event; none were considered severe. Continuous intrajejunal LCIG infusion maintained stable plasma levodopa levels over 16 h. Consistent exposure has been shown to reduce motor and nonmotor complications associated with oral medications. LCIG was well tolerated, consistent with previous reports.
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To study the effect of levodopa on the visual contrast sensitivity of patients with Parkinson's disease.
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Eighteen patients who had been treated with levodopa were assigned to the case group, and 19 untreated patients were assigned to the control group. Snellen visual acuity converted to logMAR and mean deviation on Humphrey automated perimetry (Program 24-2, Humphrey Instruments, San Leardro, CA) were evaluated at the initial and 6-month visits.
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In view of reports that low-dose bromocriptine (15 mg or less daily) therapy is effective in Parkinson's disease, we undertook a retrospective study of 79 patients with Parkinson's disease to evaluate factors that affect the optimal daily dose of bromocriptine in subjects whose intake of levodopa was decreased as bromocriptine was introduced. Doses of bromocriptine 15 mg or less daily were seldom therapeutic; doses of over 15 mg, up to 30 mg, were appropriate for patients with mild, early disease. Those with more severe symptoms of longer duration usually required larger doses. The optimal daily requirement of bromocriptine was correlated to the severity and duration of the illness, but not to the age of the patient.
The pharmacokinetics of Sinemet CR, a controlled-release formulation containing carbidopa and levodopa, were investigated in healthy young and elderly volunteers and in patients with Parkinson's disease. Sinemet CR produced more sustained plasma levels of levodopa, carbidopa, and 3-O methyldopa than did conventional Sinemet. In elderly subjects, the corresponding steady-state plasma levels fluctuated in narrower ranges with Sinemet CR than those following the administration of Sinemet. Results indicate a levodopa bioavailability of 71% for Sinemet CR, in contrast to a bioavailability of 99% for Sinemet for these subjects. The carbidopa bioavailability of Sinemet CR was 58% relative to that of Sinemet. Systemic decarboxylase inhibition was comparable between the 2 regimens as indicated by the renal clearance of levodopa. The absorption of levodopa was slower and more protracted with Sinemet CR than with Sinemet. Food increased the levodopa bioavailability of Sinemet CR. This increase was attributed to an increased gastric retention time. No dose-dumping occurred with Sinemet CR in either the nonfasting or the fasting state. Levodopa bioavailability was lower in young volunteers than in elderly volunteers. This was attributed to an age-related decrease in gastric emptying and in 1st-pass metabolic decarboxylation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In parkinsonian patients, as in healthy subjects, the Sinemet CR formulation produced more sustained levodopa plasma levels. These patients required a higher total daily dosage of Sinemet CR than of Sinemet for control of parkinsonian symptoms, but less frequent dosing was required during chronic therapy. Peak plasma levodopa levels increased proportionately with increasing Sinemet CR dosage. These observations were consistent with the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the formulation.