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Pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug, is metabolised mainly by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 enzyme. The leukotriene receptor antagonists montelukast and zafirlukast have potently inhibited CYP2C8 activity and the metabolism of pioglitazone in vitro. Our objective was to determine whether montelukast and zafirlukast increase the plasma concentrations of pioglitazone in humans.
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Aspirin intolerance is the hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Overproduction of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) has been implicated as major mediators of AERD; however, the LT receptor antagonist montelukast is only partially effective in inhibiting aspirin responses. Several studies have documented the importance of cytokine production by T lymphocytes in asthma. Peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cytokine expression and its relation to aspirin desensitization in aspirin-sensitive patients with asthma have not been studied. This study was performed to examine PBL cytokine expression in aspirin-sensitive patients who have asthma before and after aspirin desensitization. A 42-year-old white woman with a history of severe asthma, nasal polyps, aspirin sensitivity, and chronic sinusitis was treated with aspirin desensitization. Blood was taken before and after aspirin desensitization, and PBL cytokine expression was studied by flow cytometry. Aspirin desensitization differentially affects interferon (IFN) gamma expression. This effect results in an increase in IFN-gamma expression by CD4(+) lymphocytes and a decrease in IFN-gamma expression by CD8(+) lymphocytes. Aspirin desensitization in an aspirin-sensitive patient with asthma resulted in an increase in IFN-gamma expression by CD4(+) lymphocytes and a decrease in IFN-gamma expression by CD8(+) lymphocytes, the significance of which needs additional investigation.
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This work was aimed at characterizing the potential modulation of CysLT1 receptor expression by cytokines and the eventual functional relevance of this modulation.
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Baseline demographic and spirometric parameters were comparable. The median (95% confidence interval) percentage predicted FEV(1) was similar in the two groups after 12 weeks of treatment (budesonide: 76.70 (67.96-90.53%), montelukast: 75 (67.40-88.47)%; p = 0.44). There was similar improvement in spirometric parameters and clinical symptom scores in both the groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the need for rescue drugs as well as side effects reported by parents.
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Although comparisons were limited by study design heterogeneity and use of rescue medications in SLIT-tablet trials, effects on nasal symptoms with timothy grass and ragweed SLIT-tablets were nearly as great as with MFNS and numerically greater than with montelukast and desloratadine for SAR. HDM SLIT-tablet effects were numerically greater than all pharmacotherapies for PAR. SLIT-tablets offer the additional benefit of long-term efficacy.
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Our study showed that montelukast affected plasma IFN-gamma and eotaxin levels after five days of treatment. Further studies are needed to demonstrate effects of montelukast on chemokine levels in bronchiolitis.
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EBC cysLTs were significantly lower in asthmatic children who were treated with montelukast than in those who were not (median (interquartile range) 36.62 (22.60-101.05) versus 249.1 (74.21-526.36) pg/ml, p = 0.004). There was a significant relationship between EBC cysLTs and RBM thickness in the subgroup of children who were not treated with montelukast (n = 13, r = 0.75, p = 0.003).
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Acute pancreatitis caused significant decreases in tissue glutathione level and Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase activity, which were accompanied with significant increases in the pancreatic malondialdehyde level, myeloperoxidase activity, and plasma cytokine level. On the other hand, montelukast treatment reversed all these biochemical indices and histopathological alterations that were induced by cerulein.
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The microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique has been evaluated for the extraction of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) from various solid dosage forms. Using immediate release tablets of Compound A as a model, optimization of the extraction method with regards to extraction solvent composition, extraction time and temperature was briefly discussed. Complete recovery of Compound A was achieved when samples were extracted using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent under microwave heating at a constant cell temperature of 50 degrees C for 5 min. The optimized MAE method was applied for content uniformity (single tablet extraction) and potency (multiple tablets extraction) assays of release and stability samples of two products of Compound A (5 and 25mg dose strength) stored at various conditions. To further demonstrate the applicability of MAE, the instrumental extraction conditions (50 degrees C for 5 min) were adopted for the extraction of montelukast sodium (Singulair) from various solid dosage forms using methanol-water (75:25, v/v) as the extraction solvent. The MAE procedure demonstrated an extraction efficiency of 97.4-101.9% label claim with the greatest RSD at 1.4%. The results compare favorably with 97.6-102.3% label claim with the greatest RSD at 2.9% obtained with validated mechanical extraction procedures. The system is affordable, user-friendly and simple to operate and troubleshoot. Rapid extraction process (7 min/run) along with high throughput capacity (up to 23 samples simultaneously) would lead to reduced cycle time and thus increased productivity.
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This study has demonstrated that the cysLT LTD(4) can stimulate proliferation of eosinophil hematopoietic progenitor cells in the presence of eosinophilopoietic cytokines. The suppressive effect by montelukast demonstrates that this is a cysLT(1) receptor-mediated effect.
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With increased awareness of medication errors, healthcare practitioners, manufacturers, and patients should take precautionary steps to prevent dispensing errors and their consequences.
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This first overall analysis of anti-asthmatic utilization studies in out-of-hospital children indicates a wide variability in anti-asthmatic prescription prevalence. It also reveals that epidemiological evaluations should be improved by using homogeneous indicators and, in order to validate the use of anti-asthmatic prescription as a proxy of disease, the diagnosis of asthma should accompany the data of prescriptions within the same population.
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Asthma control remains suboptimal in adults and children worldwide. Inhaled salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination (SFC) and oral montelukast (MON) are 2 treatments available for childhood asthma.
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To determine the effect of montelukast treatment on airway hyperresponsiveness to exercise, methacholine and adenosine-5'-monophosphate and on exhaled nitric oxide levels in steroid-naive asthmatics.
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To investigate the effects of montelukast on atherosclerosis and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model.