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This article explains the mechanisms underlying choices of pharmacotherapy for hypoxic-ischemic insults of both preterm and term babies. Some preclinical data are strong enough that clinical trials are now underway. Challenges remain in deciding the best combination therapies for each age and insult.
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Candidate clinical trials were identified through searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and PsycINFO. Fourteen randomized clinical trials were included for systematic review and meta-analysis from 132 potential trials. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 was used for meta-analysis.
Obesity is a serious chronic disease. Controlled-release phentermine/topiramate (PHEN/TPM CR), as an adjunct to lifestyle modification, has previously shown significant weight loss compared with placebo in a 56-wk study in overweight and obese subjects with ≥2 weight-related comorbidities.
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This study does not provide evidence that the addition of propranolol LA to topiramate adds benefit when chronic migraine is inadequately controlled with topiramate alone.
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PubMed/MEDLINE database were searched until September 5, 2015, using the keywords topiramate AND antipsych* OR neurolept* OR specific antipsychotic names.
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The pharmacological treatment of migraine may be acute or preventive. Frequent, severe and long-lasting migraine attacks require prophylaxis. Multiple threads of research over the last 15 years have led to the concept that migraine is generated from a hyperexcitable brain. A variety of causes for hyperexcitability of the brain in migraine have been suggested. These causes include low cerebral magnesium levels, mitochondrial abnormalities, dysfunctions related to increased nitric oxide or the existence of a P/Q type calcium channelopathy. The better knowledge about migraine pathophisiology led us to discuss new treatment options.
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Novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are thought to act on voltage-sensitive ion channels, on inhibitory neurotransmission or on excitatory neurotransmission. Two successful examples of rational AED design that potentiate GABA-mediated inhibition are vigabatrin (VGB) by irreversible inhibition of GABA-transaminase, and tiagabine (TGB) by blocking GABA uptake. Lamotrigine (LTG) prolongs inactivation of voltage-dependent sodium channels. The anticonvulsant action of remacemide (RCM) is probably largely due to blockade of NMDA receptors and prolonged inactivation of sodium channels induced by its desglycinated metabolite. Felbamate (FBM) apparently blocks NMDA receptors, potentiates GABA-mediated responses, blocks L-type calcium channels, and possibly also prolongs sodium channel inactivation. Similarly, topiramate (TPM) has multiple probable sites of action, including sodium channels, GABA receptors, and glutamate (AMPA) receptors. Gabapentin (GBP) apparently has a completely novel type of action, probably involving potentiation of GABA-mediated inhibition and possibly also inactivation of sodium channels. The therapeutic advantages of the novel AEDs are as yet only partially explained by our present understanding of their mechanisms of action.
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WWE in premenopausal state aged 18 to 45 years old, currently on AED monotherapy for more than six months, were recruited for this study. The subjects checked their oral temperature each morning, and tested serum levels for lipid profiles, insulin, glucose, and leptin. A HOMA-index was used as a marker for insulin resistance.
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To determine rates of cross-sensitivity of rash among commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with epilepsy.
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The pharmacologic treatment of migraine may be acute (abortive) or preventive (prophylactic), and patients with frequent severe headaches often require both approaches. Preventive therapy is used to try to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. The preventive medications with the best-documented efficacy are amitriptyline, divalproex, topiramate, and the beta-blockers. Choice is made based on a drug's proven efficacy, the physician's informed belief about medications not yet evaluated in controlled trials, the drug's adverse events, the patient's preferences and headache profile, and the presence or absence of coexisting disorders. Because comorbid medical and psychologic illnesses are prevalent in patients who have migraine, one must consider comorbidity when choosing preventive drugs. Drug therapy may be beneficial for both disorders; however, it is also a potential confounder of optimal treatment of either.
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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex mental disease associated with severe serious functional impairment, affective instability, and impulsive aggression. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of topiramate versus placebo in the treatment of aggression in men with borderline personality disorder.
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We report the case of dizygotic siblings with a known CYP24A1 mutation resulting in chronic hypercalcemia and impairment of kidney function. At the same point in time both of them developed intracranial hypertension resistant to conservative therapy necessitating therefore ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. In both children magnetic resonance imaging showed slightly hypoplastic sinus transversus as the potential underlying cause.
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Antiepileptic drugs have been used for treating different types of neuropathic pain, and sometimes fibromyalgia. Our understanding of quality standards in chronic pain trials has improved to include new sources of potential bias. Individual Cochrane reviews using these new standards have assessed individual antiepileptic drugs. An early review from this group, originally published in 1998, was titled 'Anticonvulsants for acute and chronic pain'. This overview now covers the neuropathic pain aspect of that original review, which was withdrawn in 2009.
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The Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is an age-specific disorder, characterised by epileptic seizures, a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG), psychomotor delay and behavioural disorder. It occurs more frequently in males and onset is usually before the age of eight years, with a peak between three and five years of age. Late cases occurring in adolescence and early adulthood have rarely been reported. Language is frequently affected, with both slowness in ideation and expression in addition to difficulties of motor dysfunction. Severe behavioural disorders (e.g. hyperactivity, aggressiveness and autistic tendencies) and personality disorders are nearly always present. There is also a tendency for psychosis to develop with time. The long-term prognosis is poor; although the epilepsy often improves, complete seizure freedom is rare and conversely the mental and psychiatric disorders tend to worsen with time.