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Pentoxifylline accelerates healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. This effect may be due in part to reduction of neutrophil infiltration and inhibition of production of TNF-alpha by inflammatory cells. Early-phase inhibition of inflammatory response may accelerate ulcer healing.
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A 34-year-old female, one day post-status cosmetic breast reduction mammoplasty developed a dusky discoloration of the left nipple areolar complex, indicating imminent flap failure. The patient was immediately treated with topical nitroglycerin, oral pentoxifylline, and referred for HBO2. After her first HBO2 treatment, there was clinical improvement to the superior portion of the areolar flap, with little improvement inferiorly where the discoloration had remained essentially unchanged. To address this, we added leech therapy and discontinued the topical nitroglycerin. Ceftriaxone for Aeromonas prophylaxis was started, and leeches were attached two at a time and removed from the area once feeding had ceased. These were applied three times per day for three days while receiving HBO2 twice per day for six days. The patient's flap improved and completely healed by Week 8 without need for further surgery.
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Thus, these novel compounds offer a new disease modifying therapy for arthritis and the results also suggest that inhibition of TNF alpha production may contribute, at least in part, to their anti-arthritic activity.
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Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI). The optimal strategy to prevent CIAKI remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pentoxifylline, a nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on the prevention of CIAKI. A total of 32 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal dietary group (NN; n=8) and a high cholesterol-supplemented dietary group (HN; 4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid; n=24). At the end of eight weeks, the rats in the high cholesterol diet group were randomly divided into three subgroups (n=8 in each group). CIAKI was induced in two of the subgroups via intravenous injection of the radiocontrast media iohexol (10 ml/kg). Pentoxifylline (50 mg/kg) was administered to one of the iohexol-treated groups via intraperitoneal injection 12 h prior to and following contrast media (CM) injection. Kidney function parameters and oxidative stress markers were then measured. The renal pathological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining and scored semi-quantitatively. In iohexol-injected rats, serum creatinine (Scr), renal pathological scores, renal malondialdehyde (MDA) content, renal NADPH oxidase activity, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa%) and fractional excretion of potassium (FEK%) were significantly increased (P<0.01). The Scr, histologic scores, renal MDA content, NADPH oxidase activity, FENa% and FEK% in the rats treated with pentoxifylline prior to iohexol were observed to be reduced compared with those in rats treated with iohexol alone (P<0.01). This suggests that pentoxifylline significantly attenuates renal injuries, including tubular necrosis and proteinaceous casts induced by CM. It may be concluded that pentoxifylline protected the renal tissue from the nephrotoxicity induced by low-osmolar CM via an antioxidant effect.
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Four patients receiving pentoxifylline and 3 patients receiving placebo discontinued medication because of nausea. In the remaining subjects, the use of pentoxifylline increased ocular fundus pulsation amplitude (P<.001 vs placebo and baseline). The maximum increase was 28% after 3 months. In contrast, retinal blood flow was not changed by the use of pentoxifylline.
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Pentoxifylline versus nicergoline therapy has been studied in 56 patients with atherosclerosis of major cerebral arteries who had ischemic apoplexy. Pentoxifylline enhances circulation primarily in the stenotic vessels, while nicergoline in the intact cerebral arteries. The former is more potent in inducing antiaggregation inhibiting spontaneous platelet and red cell aggregation and reducing blood viscosity. The results of the study suggest better response in case of pentoxifylline treatment of patients with hypo- and eukinetic circulation, while in nicergoline treatment hyperkinetic hemodynamics patients benefit more in view of the drug cardiodepressive activity.
Effect of unique hemorrheologic agent pentoxifylline (PTX) was investigated on cyclosporine (CsA) induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Compared to saline control, CsA produced significant increase in blood urea and serum creatinine. Pentoxifylline treatment prevented the CsA-induced rise in blood urea and serum creatinine. Creatinine clearance (Ccr) and lithium clearance (Licr) was decreased with CsA. PTX treatment prevented the CsA-induced decrease in Ccr and Licr. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased with CsA compared to saline treated animals. PTX prevented the CsA-induced MDA rise. Kidney form CsA treated rat showed marked vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium with excess of microcalcification. Severity of the lesions was markedly reduced in rats treated with PTX plus CsA. The results indicate that PTX reduces CsA-induced renal toxicity in rats.
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Overall, there was a statistically significant improvement in the pain-free walking distance after pentoxifylline therapy (weighted mean difference 29.4 m [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.0 to 45.9 m]); this finding was based on a total sample of 612 patients (308 in the treatment groups and 304 in the control groups). A significant improvement was also noted in the absolute claudication distance (weighted mean difference 48.4 m [95% CI 18.3 to 78.6 m]); this was based on a total sample of 511 patients (258 in the treatment group and 253 in the control group). In a sensitivity analysis of the pain-free walking distance, significant treatment effects and no statistically significant heterogeneity were found when only trials were included that were "medically eligible" (involved patients with stage II disease and a pain-free walking distance of 50 to 200 m). In a similar sensitivity analysis of the absolute claudication distance, the two conditions resulting in a significant treatment effect and no significant heterogeneity were the inclusion of "medically eligible" trials and those with a shorter treatment duration (13 weeks or less).
In a prospective, randomized, parallel study, two regimens of platelet-suppressant therapy (PST)--dipyridamole-aspirin and pentoxifylline-aspirin--were compared with standard oral anticoagulation with warfarin in the prevention of prosthetic heart valve thromboembolism. In the entire group of 254 patients followed for 395.6 patient-years, the thromboembolic rate was significantly less in the warfarin group (warfarin vs dipyridamole-aspirin, p less than .005; warfarin vs pentoxifylline-aspirin, p less than .05). Subgroup analysis disclosed that, in patients with isolated mitral valve replacement, warfarin was superior to both of the PSTs with respect to the prevention of thromboembolism (warfarin vs dipyridamole-aspirin, p = .005; warfarin vs pentoxifylline-aspirin, p less than .05). Furthermore, a significant number of our patients could not tolerate the antiplatelet agents. However, in the rare situation in which repeated significant bleeding occurs despite careful adjustment of the dosage of warfarin, PST may be an acceptable alternate method of thromboembolism prophylaxis.
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Neuropathic pain was induced by sciatic nerve ligation using of CCI model in rats. Rats were randomly assigned into sham, CCI-saline treated, and CCI-PTX treated (30 or 60 mg/kg ip) groups. PTX or saline administered at 30 min before CCI and daily for 14 days post-CCI. At the days of 3, 7, 11 and 14 following CCI, by using standard methods effects of thermal hyperalgesia, thermal and mechanical allodynia in all groups were examined using the standard methods.
We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with LV from 1997 to 2007 at our centre.