Statin/fibrate combinations are frequently used to treat mixed dyslipidemia. However, these combinations may cause life-threatening drug interactions (e.g. rhabdomyolysis) possibly induced by modifications of cytochrome P450 isozyme activities. Some statins are also transported by P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and may act as inhibitors of this drug efflux pump. So far, nothing is known about possible Pgp modulating effects of fibrates. We tested whether gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, fenofibric acid, and bezafibrate inhibit Pgp in vitro using a calcein acetoxymethylester (calcein-AM) uptake assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy with bodipy-verapamil as substrate in L-MDR1 cells, which overexpress human Pgp. In uptake assays in cells with (L-MDR1) and without (LLC-PK1) human Pgp we also investigated whether these compounds are transported by Pgp. Intracellular concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Of the tested fibrates, only fenofibrate increased calcein-AM uptake into cells indicating an inhibition of Pgp mediated transport by this compound. The potency of fenofibrate (mean+/-SD: 7.1+/-3.2 microM), evaluated by calculating the concentration needed to double baseline fluorescence (f2), was similar to that of simvastatin (5.8+/-1.5 microM), lovastatin (10.1+/-1.0), and verapamil (4.7+/-0.8 microM). For simvastatin and fenofibrate Pgp inhibition was confirmed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fenofibrate, fenofibric acid, gemfibrozil, and bezafibrate showed no difference in the cellular uptake between LLC-PK1 and L-MDR1, indicating that the tested fibrates are not Pgp substrates. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that fenofibrate inhibits Pgp in vitro with a potency similar to simvastatin.
tricor generic substitute
We previously randomised patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) > 160 and TG > 200 mg/dl to rosuvastatin monotherapy 40 mg/day (R group, n = 30) or rosuvastatin 10 mg/day combined with fenofibrate 200 mg/day (RF group, n = 30) or ω-3 fatty acids 2 g/day (Rω group, n = 30). In the present study, only patients with MetS were included (24, 23 and 24 in the R, RF and Rω groups respectively). At baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment, the lipoprotein subfraction profile was determined by polyacrylamide 3% gel electrophoresis.
tricor 6 mg
The thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ activator drugs rosiglitazone and pioglitazone suppress insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. They lock lipids into adipose tissue triglyceride stores, thereby preventing lipid metabolites from causing insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscle and β-cell failure. They also reduce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and increase the plasma level of adiponectin, which increases insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. However, they have only a modest effect on dyslipidaemia, and they increase fat mass and plasma volume. Fibrate PPAR-α activator drugs decrease plasma triglycerides and increase HDL-cholesterol levels. PPAR-δ activators increase the capacity for fat oxidation in skeletal muscle.Clinical experience with bezafibrate, which activates PPAR-δ and -α, and studies on the PPAR-α/δ activator tetradecylthioacetic acid, the PPAR-δ activator GW501516, and combinations of the PPAR-α activator fenofibrate with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone have encouraged attempts to develop single molecules that activate two or all three PPARs. Most effort has focussed on dual PPAR-α/γ activators. These reduce both hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, but their development has been terminated by issues such as increased weight gain, oedema, plasma creatinine and myocardial infarction or stroke. In addition, the FDA has stated that many PPAR ligands submitted to it have caused increased numbers of tumours in carcinogenicity studies.Rather than aiming for full potent agonists, it may be best to identify subtype-selective partial agonists or compounds that selectively activate PPAR signalling pathways and use these in combination. Nutrients or modified lipids that are low-affinity agonists may also have potential.
The recently published results of ACCORD-Lipid trial will be presented upon the background of previous trials that have tested the ability of fibrates to lower cardiovascular risk.
tricor 96 mg
Fenofibrate treatment lowered fasting Lp-PLA2 mass by 13.2% (-19.0 to -7.7) versus placebo (2.3% [-5.0 to 4.1], P = .0002) and total ox-FA by 15.5% (-34.2 to +1.4) versus an 11.5% increase with placebo (P = .0013). In age-, sex-, and treatment-adjusted models, changes in Lp-PLA2 mass were associated with reductions in chemical LDL cholesterol (r = 0.59, P < .01) and measured total LDL particles (LDL-Ps) (r = 0.64, P < .01) and small LDL-Ps (r = 0.57, P < .01). In models that included small LDL, effects of fenofibrate on Lp-PLA2 mass were attenuated (P = .125), but not in models that included LDL cholesterol (P < .0001) and LDL-Ps (P = .005). Changes in Lp-PLA2 mass were not significantly associated with changes in ox-FA or inflammatory markers.
A total of 165 patients (117 men, 48 women; mean [SD] age, 50.1 [10.7] years; mean TC concentration, 289 mg/dL) were randomized to receive atorvastatin (n = 81) or fenofibrate (n = 84). Compared with fenofibrate, atorvastatin was associated with a significantly greater mean (SD) percentage decrease in TC (27.0% [12.3%] vs 16.5% [12.9%]; P < 0.001), calculated LDL-C (35.4% [15.8%] vs 17.3% [17.2%]; P < 0.001), TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (29.1% [16.3%] vs 22.9% [15.9%]; P = 0.001), and apoB (30.3% [12.7%] vs 19.6% [15.5%]; P < 0.001). Compared with atorvastatin, fenofibrate was associated with a significantly greater decrease in TG (37.2% [25.9%] vs 20.2% [27.3%]; P < 0.001) and a significantly greater increase in HDL-C concentration (10.4% [15.7%] vs 4.6% [12.1%]; P = 0.017). Fibrinogen concentration was significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.002); it was decreased with fenofibrate use (4.6% [23.7%]) and was increased with atorvastatin use (5.7% [23.5%]). Atorvastatin did not markedly affect the LDL distribution; it was associated with a homogeneous decrease in cholesterol and apoB concentrations in all subfractions, whereas fenofibrate was associated with a marked movement toward a normalized LDL profile, shifting the sdLDL subfractions toward larger and less atherogenic particles, particularly in those patients with baseline TG ≥200 mg/dL. No serious AEs related to the study treatments were reported. A total of 5 AEs were observed in 8 patients, including: abdominal pain, 3 patients (2 in the atorvastatin group and 1 in the fenofibrate group); abnormal liver function test results, 1 (fenofibrate); increased creatine Phosphokinase activity, 2 (atorvastatin); gastrointestinal disorders, 1 (fenofibrate); and vertigo, 1 (fenofibrate).
tricor drug classification
These data indicate that the PPARalpha-activator fenofibrate reduces plaque thrombogenicity and accelerates endothelial regrowth which, altogether, might improve plaque stability. These effects may underlie the preventive effects of fibrate therapy in atherosclerosis complications.
tricor order form
Chronic kidney disease is associated with a 15-fold increase in the risk of death and a 30-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular events even prior to dialysis initiation, and this situation remains unchanged following the initiation of the dialysis procedure. Lipoprotein structure and function, especially the anti-oxidative properties of high-density lipoprotein, are altered. In this study, the effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes is explored.
In rats, two peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase genes (A and B) have been cloned, whereas only one thiolase gene is found in humans. The aim of this study was thus to clone the different mouse thiolase genes in order to study both their tissue expression and their associated enzymatic activity.
tricor medication fenofibrate
After maximizing statin and lifestyle adherence, some patients may benefit from additional low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. The potential for net benefit from added therapy can inform nonstatin decision-making. Considering patient risk and the LDL-C level on statin, the additional potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction benefit from further lowering LDL-C depends on the magnitude of LDL-C lowering from the nonstatin. Ezetimibe is the only nonstatin shown to reduce atherosclerotic CVD events added to a statin, albeit modestly, since it modestly reduces LDL-C by about 20%. Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin-Like/Kexin Type 9 mononclonal antibodies lower LDL-Cby 45-65%, but definitive CVD outcomes and safety trials are pending. Niacin and fenofibrate do not clearly reduce CVD events in statin-treated patients, and may increase adverse events. Bile acid sequestrants have not been evaluated in CVD outcome trials in statin-treated patients, and have an excess of adverse effects. Cost also plays a role in access to nonstatin therapy. These considerations may inform shared decision-making.
tricor order forms
The elevation of VLDL 1 triglycerides is the major determinant of plasma triglyceride concentration in normal subjects and in type 2 diabetic individuals. Both apo CIII and apo E metabolism are disturbed in type 2 diabetes.
tricor brand name
Our results provide the first evidence for an impact of triglycerides on erectile function. This detrimental effect is likely to be due to functional vascular and neuronal deficits related to hypertriglyceridemia.