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To generate normative data on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test- Revised (HVLT-R) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate.
Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method.
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Vitamin D is known to have modulatory actions in the immune system. Its influence on the severity of lower tract acute respiratory infections (LT-ARIs) is unclear.
Adverse effects and drug resistance to the current onchopharmacologicals have increased the demand for alternative novel therapeutics. We herein introduce justicidin B, an arylnaphthalen lignan isolated from different plant origins, especially Justicia, Phyllanthus, Haplophyllum and Linum species. This cyclolignan exhibits a wide array of biological properties ranges from piscicidal to antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activities. Activity against Trypanosoma brucei makes justicidin B a potential antiprotozoal agent for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases. Pharmacological properties like antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and bone resorption inhibition have been also attributed to justicidin B. This compound is a potent cytotoxic substance on several cell lines, especially chronic myeloid and chronic lymphoid leukemia. Pharmacological values, natural variation, as well as biotechnological production of justicidin B by plant cell, tissue and organ culture are also described in this review. Chemical characteristics and chromatographic methods to identify justicidin B and its biosynthetic pathway have been discussed. Different approaches to the total synthesis of justicidin B are compared. This review would shed light on the role of justicidin B as an intriguing natural compound and provides a chance to optimize conditions for industrial applications.
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Extracts of J. simplex was evaluated for the in vitro cytotoxic effect by Brine Shrimp Lethality assay, Trypan Blue dye exclusion assay and antiproliferative assay. In vivo cytotoxicity of the extracts were determined by liquid tumor model in Swiss albino mice. Tumor prognosis, metastasis and angiogenesis were assessed by VEGF expression of the solid tumor. Phytochemical analysis afforded the isolation of a compound, the chemical structure of which was established using IR, NMR and TOF-MS spectral method. The compound was also evaluated for the growth inhibitory and angiogenic effects.
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We analyzed the Y chromosome haplotypes (Yfiler) of 978 non-related Chilean males grouped in five sampling regions (Iquique, Santiago de Chile, Concepción, Temuco and Punta Arenas) covering main geo-political regions. Overall, 803 different haplotypes and 688 singletons were observed. Molecular diversity was moderately lower than in other neighboring countries (e.g. Argentina); and AMOVA analysis on Y-STR haplotypes showed that among variation within Chile accounted for only 0.25% of the total variation. Punta Arenas, in the southern cone, showed the lowest haplotype diversity, and discrimination capacity, and also the highest matching probability of the five Chilean samples, probably reflecting its more marked geographic isolation compared to the other regions. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis based on RST genetic distances suggested a close proximity of Chilean Y-chromosome profiles to European ones. Consistently, haplogroups inferred from Y-STR profiles revealed that the Native American component constituted only 8% of all the haplotypes, and this component ranged from 5% in the Centre of the country to 9-10% in the South and 13% in the North, which is in good agreement with the distribution of Native American communities in these regions. AMOVA computed on inferred haplogroups confirmed the very low among variation observed in Chilean populations. The present project provides the first Chilean dataset to the international Y-chromosome STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) and it is also the first reference database for Y-chromosome forensic casework of the country.
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Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery.
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We investigated the antitussive effects of a KJ (30 ml/day; 762 mg genuine extracts with standardized contents of 0.2 mg/ml vasicine, 0.8 mg/ml chicoric acid, and 0.03 mg/ml eleutherosides B and E), bromhexine hydrochloride (24 mg/30 ml/day) and PL on cough and blood markers. The primary outcome was cough relief, which was assessed as the change of cough frequency from baseline (cough index). Secondary outcomes were safety with regards to reported adverse events (AEs) and hematological data.
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An ultra-performance liquid chromatography ultra-high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-UHR-QTOF-MS) metabolite profiling ofxs Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. leaves was performed. PCA and HCA analyses were applied to observe the clustering patterns and inter-sample relationships. It seemed that the concentrations of Ca, P, and Cu in the soil could affect the metabolite profiles of Justicia gendarussa. Six significant metabolites were proposed.
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The aqueous extract of the leaf mixtures of Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis given by oral route to immature female rats, at doses of 13, 49 and 94 mg/kg per day for 15 days induced a significant increase in ovarian and uteri weight as well as serum and ovarian oestradiol. Moreover, a significant decrease in liver of aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was noticed in treated animals.
Induction of neuroprotective heat-shock proteins via pharmacological Hsp90 inhibitors is currently being investigated as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Two major hurdles for therapeutic use of Hsp90 inhibitors are systemic toxicity and limited central nervous system permeability. We demonstrate here that chronic treatment with a proprietary Hsp90 inhibitor compound (OS47720) not only elicits a heat-shock-like response but also offers synaptic protection in symptomatic Tg2576 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease, without noticeable systemic toxicity. Despite a short half-life of OS47720 in mouse brain, a single intraperitoneal injection induces rapid and long-lasting (>3 days) nuclear activation of the heat-shock factor, HSF1. Mechanistic study indicates that the remedial effects of OS47720 depend upon HSF1 activation and the subsequent HSF1-mediated transcriptional events on synaptic genes. Taken together, this work reveals a novel role of HSF1 in synaptic function and memory, which likely occurs through modulation of the synaptic transcriptome.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 26 July 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.104.
According to our and other ethnobotanic studies (Walker, R., 1951. Une Nouvelle Légumineuse du Gabon servant à narcotiser le poisson. Rev. Bot. Appl. 31, 327; Walker, R., Sillans, R., 1961. Les plantes utiles du Gabon. Encyclopédie Biologique. P. Chevalier, Paris; Halle, N., 1970. Flore du Gabon 17, Famille des Rubiacées. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris; Mounzeo, H., et al., 1997. Quelques plantes utilisées comme poisons de pêches chez les Punu du Gabon. Le Flamboyant 44. Décembre, Bulletin de Liaison des membres du réseau 'Arbres Tropicaux'), Tephrosia vogelii and Justicia extensa are two plants whose leaves are particularly used for the catching of fish in Gabonese rivers. The leaf extracts of those plants have been tested on Tilapia nilotica in order to observe their toxicity. At a given dose, the small fish are the first to be poisoned. This toxicity is more important for J. extensa and increased in a dose-dependent manner. After boiling for 90 min, those leaf extracts and rotenone (10(-6) M) taken as a control retain their toxicity at high dose (625 mg/l), although the latency period is higher. With the same temperature condition, at weak doses (37.5 and 62.5 mg/l), T. vogelii loses its toxicity, whereas J. extensa preserves it at 62.5 mg/l. As shown in our results, the fact that the extracts preserve their toxicity at high dose after boiling requires particular attention be given to the doses used for fishing and to the type of plants used.