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The effectiveness of mebendazole as adjuvant treatment in hydatidosis was evaluated in 19 patients; 12 were treated both before and after surgery, 6 were not treated, one had primary treatment only, owing to the refuse of surgery. Mebendazole was administrated at the dosage of 30-50 mg/kg/day po for 30 days followed by a washout of 15 days, for a mean of 4 cycles (range 1-7) and 12 cycles (range 1-24) before and after surgery, respectively. Patients were monitored by total IgE, specific anti-echinococcus IgE and IgG, at diagnosis, just before surgery and thereafter every six months. Antibody titer decrease was observed soon after the first cycles of medical treatment before surgery, as well as a clear-cut drop after surgery, followed by a continuing decrease after the following cycles of mebendazole. Relapse of disease was observed in two patients only at one and two years after surgery respectively. These preliminary results seem to point out that mebendazole might play a role in the treatment of hydatidosis as adjuvant of surgical therapy.
Echinococcus granulosus remains a clinical problem in sheep and subsistence farming communities in South Africa. The most commonly affected organs are the liver and the lung. Most cysts remain clinically silent and are diagnosed incidentally or when complications occur. Clinical examination is unreliable in making the diagnosis. Serological testing has a broad range of sensitivity and specificity and is dependent on the purity of the antigens utilised. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen is gens utilised. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen is both sensitive and cost effective. Computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are reserved for complicated cases. The differential diagnosis includes any cystic lesion of the liver. Liver hydatid cysts can be treated by medical or minimally invasive (laparoscopic and percutaneous) means or by conventional open surgery. The most effective chemotherapeutic agents against the parasite are the benzimidazole carbamates, albendazole and mebendazole. Albendazole is more efficacious, but recommended treatment regimens differ widely in terms of timing, length of treatment and dose. Medical treatment alone is not an effective and durable treatment option. PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, reaspiration) is the newest and most widely practised minimally invasive technique with encouraging results, but it requires considerable expertise. Open surgery remains the most accessible and widely practised method of treatment in South Africa. The options are either radical (pericystectomy and hepatic resection) or conservative (deroofing and management of the residual cavity). Various scolicidal agents are used intraoperatively (Eusol, hypertonic saline and others), although none have been tested in a formal randomised controlled trial. Laparoscopic surgery trials are small and unconvincing at present and should be limited to centres with expertise. Complicated cysts (intrabiliary rupture and secondary infection) may require ERCP to obtain biliary clearance before surgery, and referral to a specialist centre may be indicated.
Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%.
To measure the effects of iron supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on iron status, anaemia, growth, morbidity, and development of children aged 6-59 months.
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Mebendazole, a benzimidazole carbamate compound, is currently in use for human medical practice against soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and enterobiasis. However, it has been demonstrated that its spectrum of activity is broad and goes beyond those infections. Several studies provide evidence that this drug, taken at higher doses than used for STH and enterobiasis, could be sufficiently effective on some protozoa, nematodes and cestodes.
The metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a parasitic disease affecting the liver, with occasional metastasis into other organs. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives such as mebendazole and albendazole are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of AE. Albendazole is poorly resorbed and is metabolically converted to its main metabolite albendazole sulfoxide, which is believed to be the active component, and further to albendazole sulfone. Chemotherapy with albendazole has been shown to have a parasitostatic rather than a parasitocidal effect; it is not effective in all cases, and the recurrence rate is rather high once chemotherapy is stopped. Thus, development of new means of chemotherapy of AE is needed. This could include modifications of benzimidazoles and elucidiation of the respective biological pathways. In this study we performed in vitro drug treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes with albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of vesicle fluids showed that the drugs were taken up rapidly by the parasite. Transmission electron microscopic investigation of parasite tissues and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of vesicle fluids demonstrated that albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone had similar effects with respect to parasite ultrastructure and changes in metabolites in vesicle fluids. This study shows that the in vitro cultivation model presented here provides an ideal first-round test system for screening of antiparasite drugs.
Results of the studies of large intestine microflora, enterokinase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the feces of 298 children and adults suffering from trichocephaliasis are presented. Intestinal dysbacteriosis was observed in 51.7% cases, increased enterokinase activity, in 57.6% cases and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, in 55% cases. Enteric enzyme activity relation to the state of enteric microflora is demonstrated. Specific bephenium hydroxynaphthoate and mebendazole treatment was followed by increased dysbacteriosis and higher intestinal enzyme activity, especially in case of bephenium hydroxynaphthoate treatment. Normalization of the above-mentioned parameters was observed 90-120 days after the end of the treatment.
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The effect of the broad spectrum anthelmintic drug flubendazole (methyl 5-(p-fluorobenzoyl)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate, CAS 31430-15-6), a mebendazole derivative with a molecular weight of 313.29, on Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice was evaluated. Moreover, the relationship between the posttreatment worm burden, hepatic granuloma volume, and serum immunoglobulin profile (immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M, IgG and IgM), was also investigated. Two main groups of Swiss albino mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used in the experiment. Group I consisted of infected untreated control mice. The mice of group II were submitted to treatment with flubendazole 100 mg/kg body weight as single oral dose at different time intervals: Group IIa received treatment 24 h before infection. Group IIb received treatment 4 h after infection. Group IIc received treatment 25 days after infection. Mice treated 25 days after infection, compared to those treated in other time intervals, revealed a significant reduction in the recovery of adult schistosomes after portal perfusion (79.5%), a lower immunoglobulin level (IgG and IgM), and the smallest granuloma mean diameter (220.0 +/- 10.3 microns). These data were less salient in mice treated 4 h after, and 24 h before infection.
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The larval (metacestode) stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a mainly hepatic disease characterized by continuous asexual proliferation of metacestodes by exogenous budding, resulting in the tumor-like, infiltrative growth of the parasite lesion. Current chemotherapeutical treatment of AE relies on the use of benzimidazoles, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole, but these drugs act parasitostatic rather than parasitocidal, and due to their low success rate they imply a lifelong application causing severe side effects. Thymol is one of the major components of the essential oils of Thymus and is a widely known anti-microbial agent. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) and thymol separately or combined on E. multilocularis protoscoleces and metacestodes. For this purpose, microscopical examinations at different time points were carried out. Moreover the tegumentary enzyme gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured to quantify the damage in metacestodes. Even though treatments of in vitro cultured E. multilocularis protoscoleces or metacestodes with ABZ or/and thymol showed that the drugs have an adverse effect on parasite viability, the combination of the two compounds at the concentration of 10μg/ml showed the maximum anti-parasitic effect. Three days postincubation the first effects of the treatment were detected on protoscoleces and a marked reduction in viability (33%) was registered at day 18. Incubation of E. multilocularis metacestodes in the presence of ABZ 10μg/ml+thymol 10μg/ml during 10 days resulted in dramatic alterations such as strongly irregular and fissured surface and markedly disrupted vesicles. Scanning electron microscopy showed that protoscoleces as well as the germinal layer of E. multilocularis metacestodes were dramatically damaged following ABZ or/and thymol treatment. Also an important increase of tegumentary enzyme GGT was registered after 72h postincubation with both drugs. The data reported in this article demonstrate a clear in vitro effect of ABZ+thymol against E. multilocularis protoscoleces and metacestodes.
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We evaluated all children up to 17 years of age and their adult householders exposed to the consumption of infected meat during an outbreak of trichinellosis. A questionnaire was developed to record clinical data. The blood sample was collected for blood count, muscle enzymes, serum electrolytes, albumin and serology. All exposed children were treated with mebendazole, and severe symptomatic patients received prednisolone. Clinical and laboratory presentations and outcome were recorded. To evaluate the clinical picture of trichinellosis in childhood, clinical and laboratory findings were compared between children and household adults with a confirmed diagnosis who consumed the same amount of infected meat.