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This meta-analysis suggests that 5 days of short-acting antibiotic use is effective treatment for uncomplicated acute otitis media in children.
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Acute pneumonia is a serious problem in the elderly and various risk factors have already been reported, but the involvement of QTc interval prolongation remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the prognostic factors for the development of pneumonia in elderly patients and to study the possible involvement of QTc interval prolongation.
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Scrub typhus is a vector-borne disease caused by the pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi. We review the published literature for evidence on drug treatment in scrub typhus. Doxycycline has a proven efficacy in several trials and a meta-analysis, although resistance has been documented in parts of northern Thailand. Macrolides are equally efficacious and have less adverse effects, but they are expensive. Azithromycin is the recommended drug in pregnancy and for children. Rifampicin is effective in areas where doxycycline resistance is present. Quinolones have shown some degree of efficacy but the evidence is scant. Most clinical evidence on drug treatment is from cases of mild-to-moderate scrub typhus. Further study is needed on the efficacy of different antibiotics in the treatment of severe, life-threatening scrub typhus.
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Genital tract infections by Chlamydia trachomatis associated to sterility and infertility problems as well as perinatal complications have become increasingly frequent. Azithromycin is a new macrolide with a lower activity spectrum than erythromycin and a longer half life as well as less secondary effects. The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of Azithromycin on genital tract infection by C. trachomatis. MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY. A total of 30 nonpregnant women between the ages of 19 and 35 were studied; 70% had only one sexual partner. In order to insure the presence of C. trachomatis as unique pathogen, cervicovaginal sampling, clinical evaluation and gynecologic exploration were undertaken. One dose of 1 g orally of Azithromycin was administered evaluating microbiologic and clinical remission at days 7-10, 12-16 and 33-37 after treatment. RESULTS. Two patients abandoned the study; global criteria of the evaluation were good to excellent in 17 cases; moderate to sufficient in six and poor in five. None of the cases reported secondary reactions. Results showed that Azithromycin treatment of cervicitis by C. trachomatis is useful with the advantage of unique dose administration.
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We report a case of acute severe hepatitis with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection and transient depression of multiple coagulation factors. A 5-year-old boy, previously healthy, was admitted with pneumonia. M. pneumoniae infection was confirmed by serology testing. Liver enzymes were elevated on admission without any past medical history. After treatment with azithromycin for 3 days, pneumonia improved, but the hepatitis was acutely aggravated. Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) was prolonged and depression of multiple coagulation factors developed. Liver biopsy revealed features consistent with acute hepatitis. A week later, liver enzymes were nearly normalized spontaneously. Normalization of prolonged PTT and coagulation factors were also observed several months later. This may be the first case of transient depression of multiple coagulation factors associated with M. pneumoniae infection.
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To determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory children and to compare responses to treatment with azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate or erythromycin estolate.
Azithromycin is a member of a new class of macrolides called azalydes. Although azithromycin resembles erythromycine there are significant differences in antibacterial activity and pharmacokinetic profile. Azithromycin is taken up by cells and the intracellular concentrations are significantly higher than serum concentrations. After a single oral dose of Ig, azithromycin has a long lasting effect--the tissue concentrations in the uterine and cervical tissues are kept above the minimal inhibitory concentration for Chlamydia trachomatis for more than 10 days. In order to achieve the maximal bioavailability and avoid side effects (gastrointestinal discomfort), azithromycin should be taken apart from meals (one hour before or two hours after meals). Azithromycin has no hepatotoxic potential and the possibility for drug interactions is not apparent. It is also recommended for use in pregnant women--FDA category B. A single oral dose of Ig azithromycin is the reasonable choice for the treatment of uncomplicated genital chlamydial infection.
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Two groups (n=15) of healthy volunteers participated in this study. The first group received an imported azithromycin (ImAZM) tablet (250 mg, PO) and the second group received an azithromycin tablet (250 mg PO) manufactured by an Iranian pharmaceutical company (IrAZM). Intrasulcular paper points (#30) were used in inter-proximal areas of molars and canines to collect gingival crevicular fluid samples at 6, 12, 36, 84 and 156 hours after drug administration.
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Each of the two cohorts consisted of 12 normal adult volunteers who had not had malaria during the previous 2 years: 10 who received azithromycin prophylaxis and 2 controls who did not received treatment.
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of azithromycin versus benzathine penicillin (penicillin G) for early syphilis.
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Compared to treatment with PBS, azithromycin significantly attenuated post-viral weight loss. During the peak of acute inflammation (day 8), azithromycin decreased total leukocyte accumulation in the lung tissue and BAL, with the largest fold-reduction in BAL neutrophils. This decreased inflammation was independent of changes in viral load. Azithromycin significantly attenuated the concentration of BAL inflammatory mediators and enhanced resolution of chronic airway inflammation evident by decreased BAL inflammatory mediators on day 21.
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One-hundred-and-fifty-one gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter isolates from humans (n = 38 Campylobacter jejuni; n = 41, Campylobacter coli) and retail chickens (n = 72 C. coli), were screened for the presence of gentamicin resistance genes by PCR and subtyped using PFGE. A subset of the isolates (n = 41) was analysed using WGS.
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We included randomised trials that satisfied either of two criteria: (a) trials in which topical or oral administration of an antibiotic was compared to placebo or no treatment in people or communities with trachoma, (b) trials in which a topical antibiotic was compared with an oral antibiotic in people or communities with trachoma. A subdivision of particular interest was trials in which topical tetracycline or chlortetracycline and oral azithromycin were compared with each other, or in which one of these treatments was compared with placebo or no treatment, as these are the two WHO recommended antibiotics. We considered individually randomised and cluster-randomised trials separately.